As large load disturbances with changing frequency in the vicinity of the inter-area oscillations mode occur in an interconnected power system, a system frequency may be heavily perturbed and oscillatory. To stabilise frequency oscillations, the active power controlled by a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit placed in a power system, can be utilised. However, it may not be feasible to locate a SMES unit in every area of a multi-area interconnected power system due to the economic reason. Therefore, it should be advantageous if a SMES unit located in an area is available for frequency stabilisation of other interconnected areas. To implement this concept, a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), can be applied to coordinate with a SMES unit to stabilise frequency oscillations. On the other hand, variations of system parameters, several load changes etc., cause system uncertainties. To enhance the robustness of frequency stabilisers against uncertainties, this paper focuses on a robust frequency stabilisation by SMES in co-ordination with SSSC. To take system uncertainties into account, the multiplicative uncertainty is included in system modeling. As a result, the system robust stability can be easily guaranteed in terms of the multiplicative stability margin (MSM). The structure of frequency stabiliser equipped with SMES and SSSC is a second-order lead/lag compensator. Based on the proposed optimisation technique, control parameters of frequency stabilisers can be automatically tuned by a tabu search. Consequently, the desired damping ratio of the target inter-area mode and the best MSM are achieved. Simulation studies in a two-area interconnected power system confirm the high robustness of the coordinated SMES with SSSC against several uncertainties.
In an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system, the variable power consumptions as well as the intermittent wind power may cause a large fluctuation of system frequency. If the system frequency can not be controlled and kept in the acceptable range, the system may lose stability. To reduce system frequency fluctuation, a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which is able to supply and absorb active power quickly, can be applied. In addition, variation of system parameters, unpredictable power demands and fluctuating wind power etc., cause various uncertainties in the system. A SMES controller which is designed without considering such uncertainties may lose control effect. To enhance the robustness of SMES controller, this paper focuses on a new robust control design of SMES for frequency control in a wind-diesel system. The coprime factorization is used to represent the unstructured uncertainties in a system modeling. The structure of a SMES controller is the practical first-order lead-lag compensator. To tune the controller parameters, the optimization problem is formulated based on loop shaping technique. The genetic algorithm is applied to solve the problem and achieve the control parameters. Simulation results confirm the high robustness of the proposed SMES controller with small power capacity against various disturbances and system uncertainties in comparison with SMES in the previous research.
In large-scale power systems, the wide-area damping controller (WADC) using remote input signals is an effective device that can be applied to deal with poor inter-area oscillation damping. However, its control effect will be degraded by communication uncertainties such as variable time delays in both input and output sides of WADC, partial and complete communication failures. This paper focuses on a new WADC design by regarding communication uncertainties. Such uncertainties are mathematically formulated and analyzed in order to signify its impact on the oscillatory stability. The signal restoration of input and output pairs of WADC is proposed to alleviate an adverse effect of communication uncertainties. Simulation study in an IEEE 50-machine 145-bus test system elucidates that the proposed WADC is superior to that of the conventional WADC without considering communication uncertainties in both performance and robustness.
Recently, fuzzy logic control has widely received attention in various power system applications, despite difficulties of obtaining its control rules and membership functions. Nowadays, power systems consist of multiple areas where load variations with abrupt changes always exist, and proper control rules and membership functions could hardly be achieved. This paper proposes a practical design of fuzzy logic controllers for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) based on a wide area synchronized phasor measurement for enhancing the stability of an interconnected power system. Moreover, a heuristic method is applied for determining control rules and membership functions. The estimated model is determined via a simplified oscillation model for detection and assessment of an approximated inter-area oscillation mode. Finally, some simulation studies based on a two-area four-machine power system are carried out to examine the performance and effectiveness of the designed fuzzy SMES controller.