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  • Author: Ivan Marin x
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We show that the residual nilpotence of pure Artin groups of spherical type is easily deduced from the faithfulness of the Krammer–Digne representations.


The Iwahori–Hecke algebras of type A are deformations of the group algebras of the symmetric groups, and can be defined as quotients of the group algebras of the braid groups. We determine the image of the braid groups inside these algebras, when defined over a finite field, in the semisimple case, and for suitably large (but controllable) order of the defining (quantum) parameter.



The aim of this study was to determine the possible predictive value of various dosimetric parameters on the development of hypothyroidism (HT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with (chemo)radiotherapy.

Patients and methods

This study included 156 patients with HNSCC who were treated with (chemo)radiotherapy in a primary or postoperative setting between August 2012 and September 2017. Dose-volume parameters as well as V10 toV70, D02 to D98, and the VS10 to VS70 were evaluated. The patients’ hormone status was regularly assessed during follow-up. A nomogram (score) was constructed, and the Kaplan-Maier curves and Log-Rank test were used to demonstrate the difference in incidence of HT between cut-off values of specific variables.


After a median follow-up of 23.0 (12.0–38.5) months, 70 (44.9%) patients developed HT. In univariate analysis, VS65, Dmin, V50, and total thyroid volume (TTV) had the highest accuracy in predicting HT. In a multivariate model, HT was associated with lower TTV (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.87, P = 0.026) and Dmin (OR 9.83, 95% CI 1.89–108.08, P = 0.042). Hypothyroidism risk score (HRS) was constructed as a regression equation and comprised TTV and Dmin. HRS had an AUC of 0.709 (95% CI 0.627–0.791). HT occurred in 13 (20.0%) patients with a score < 7.1 and in 57 (62.6%) patients with a score > 7.1.


The dose volume parameters VS65, Dmin, V50, and TTV had the highest accuracy in predicting HT. The HRS may be a useful tool in detecting patients with high risk for radiation-induced hypothyroidism.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of components leached from two conventional self-curing glass-ionomer cements (Fuji IX and Ketac Molar), and light-curing, resin modified glass-ionomer cements (Vitrebond, Fuji II LC). Evaluation was performed on human lymphocytes using alkaline and hOGG1 modified comet, and micronucleus assays. Each material, polymerised and unpolymerised, was eluted in extracellular saline (1 cm2 mL-1) for 1 h, 1 day, and 5 days. Cultures were treated with eluates using final dilutions of 10-2, 10-3, and 10-4. Alkaline comet assay did not detect changes in DNA migration of treated cells regardless of the ionomer tested, polymerisation state, and elution duration. Glass ionomers failed to significantly influence micronucleus frequency. No oxidative DNA damage in treated lymphocytes was observed using hOGG1 modified comet assay. Obtained results indicate high biocompatibility of all tested materials used in the study under experimental conditions.