From the aerial parts of Marrubium velutinum, two new phenylethanoid glycosides, velutinosides III-IV have been isolated together with four known phenylethanoid glycosides, as well as one new acylated flavone and five known flavonoids. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of NMR, MS, and UV spectral analyses
Two new bicyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives, hypercalyxone A (1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl- 3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-2-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-chroman-8-yl]-2-methyl-propan-1-one, 1) and B (1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-2-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-chroman- 8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one, 2), have been isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the aerial parts of Hypericum amblycalyx, together with two further compounds (1-[5,7- dihydroxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-chroman-8-yl]-2-methyl-propan-1-one, 3 and 1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-chroman-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one, 4), which have been described only as semi-synthetic products. In addition, the known triterpene lup-20(29)-en-3-one was obtained. Structure elucidation was based on 1D and 2D NMR studies, as well as on data derived from mass spectrometry. The four acylphloroglucinol derivatives were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. All compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity against KB and Jurkat T cancer cells. Especially compounds 3 and 4 exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against different Gram-positive strains.
From the aerial parts of Ajuga salicifolia (L.) Schreber, a new ionone glycoside (3β-hydroxy- 7,8-dihydro-4-oxo-β-ionol-9-O-β-ᴅ-glucopyranoside) was isolated, along with the known compounds, corchoionoside C, 8-O-acetylmioporoside, ajugol, harpagide, 8-O-acetylharpagide, lavandulifolioside and leonosides A and B. This is the first report of the occurrence of ionone glycosides and 8-O-acetylmioporoside in Ajuga species. Ajugol, lavandulifolioside, leonoside A and B were isolated for the first time from Ajuga salicifolia. The structures were elucidated by means of 1D-, 2D-NMR spectroscopy, and HR-MALDI mass spectrometry.
Together with ten well known compounds, the quinic acid derivative chlorogenic acid, the nucleoside adenosine, two amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine, the anthraquinone derivatives, aloemodin, aloemodin acetate and chyrosphanol 1-O-gentiobioside, the flavon C-glycosides, isovitexin, isoorientin and isoorientin 4’-O-β -glucopyranoside, as well as two new acylated isoorientin derivatives, 6”-O-(malonyl)-isoorientin and 6”-O-[(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl]-isoorientin, were isolated from the water soluble part of the methanolic extract of the fresh leaves of Asphodelus aestivus. All compounds were structurally identified by spectroscopic methods, including UV, MS, and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy. Among the compounds isolated, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin were found to be the main compounds of the methanolic extract.
From the aerial parts of Anthemis tinctoria L. subsp. tinctoria var. pallida DC. (Asteraceae), one new cyclitol glucoside, conduritol F-1-O-(6′-O-E-p-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated together with four flavonoids, nicotiflorin (2), isoquercitrin (3), rutin (4) and patulitrin (5). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of NMR, MS, and UV spectral analyses. Methanolic extract and pure isolated compounds were examined for their free radical, scavenging activity, using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free stable radical, and for their inhibitory activity toward soybean lipoxygenase, using linoleic acid as substrate. Compounds 1 and 5 showed a strong scavenging effect in the DPPH radical assay. In addition 5 also exhibited high inhibitory activity on soybean lipoxygenase.