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  • Author: J. Bhatti x
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Abstract

The device named autoclave used in pharma industries has been studied in this paper. This study provides the discussion how to obtain the reliability testing strategy of two dis-similar parallel units. The system is considered to be in operative condition if at least one out of two is in operative state. A single repair facility is available for repairing both kinds of failed units. In addition to repair mechanism, inspection policy has also been introduced for failed automatic unit. But the manual one does not require any such supervision facilty. Various essential measures of system effectiveness such as mean time to system failure (MTSF), steady state availability, busy period of supervisor and repairman are examined probabilistically by using geometric distribution and regenerative point techniques. A graph has been plotted to represent the behaviour of profit function and MTSF with respect to different failure and repair rate.

Abstract

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to explore the potential of MQL milling of Inconel-625 with coated carbide tool. The performance is compared in terms of surface roughness and tool flank wear in MQL milling with dry and wet milling operation of Inconel-625. The milling under MQL condition gives superior results over wet and dry milling operations. Factorial design of experiments ANOVA analysis was applied to investigate the statistically significant parameters. RSM-Desirability function optimization was applied to find out optimal setting of parameters to minimize tool wear and surface roughness in MQL machining of Inconel-625.

Abstract

Objective: Recent studies indicate that clinical chorioamnionitis is a heterogeneous condition and only approximately one-half of the patients have bacteria in the amniotic cavity, which is often associated with intra-amniotic inflammation. The objective of this study is to characterize the nature of the inflammatory response within the amniotic cavity in patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term according to the presence or absence of 1) bacteria in the amniotic cavity and 2) intra-amniotic inflammation.

Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional case-control study was conducted to examine cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the amniotic fluid (AF). Cases consisted of women with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (n=45). Controls were women with uncomplicated pregnancies at term who did not have intra-amniotic inflammation and were in labor (n=24). Women with clinical chorioamnionitis were classified according to the results of AF cultures, broad-range polymerase chain reaction coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and AF concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into those: 1) without intra-amniotic inflammation, 2) with microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation, and 3) with intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable bacteria. The AF concentrations of 29 cytokines/chemokines were determined using sensitive and specific V-PLEX immunoassays.

Results: 1) The AF concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (except Eotaxin-3) were significantly higher in women with clinical chorioamnionitis at term than in controls (term labor without intra-amniotic inflammation); 2) patients with microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation, and those with intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable bacteria, had a dramatic differential expression of cytokines and chemokines in AF compared to patients with spontaneous labor without intra-amniotic inflammation. However, no difference could be detected in the pattern of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response between patients with intra-amniotic inflammation with and without detectable bacteria; and 3) in patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term but without intra-amniotic inflammation, the behavior of cytokines and chemokines in the AF was similar to those in spontaneous labor at term.

Conclusions: Patients with clinical chorioamnionitis who had microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation or intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable bacteria had a dramatic upregulation of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response assessed by amniotic fluid concentrations of cytokines. A subset of patients with term clinical chorioamnionitis does not have intra-amniotic infection/inflammation, as demonstrated by elevated AF concentrations of inflammation-related proteins, when compared to women in term labor with uncomplicated pregnancies, suggesting over-diagnosis. These observations constitute the first characterization of the cytokine/chemokine network in the amniotic cavity of patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term.

Abstract

Introduction: Fever is a major criterion for clinical chorioamnionitis; yet, many patients with intrapartum fever do not have demonstrable intra-amniotic infection. Some cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), can induce a fever. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of cytokines could be of value in the identification of patients with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term who have microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted, including patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (n=41; cases) and women in spontaneous labor at term without clinical chorioamnionitis (n=77; controls). Women with clinical chorioamnionitis were classified into three groups according to the results of amniotic fluid culture, broad-range polymerase chain reaction coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS), and amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration: 1) no intra-amniotic inflammation; 2) intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable microorganisms; or 3) microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation. The maternal plasma concentrations of 29 cytokines were determined with sensitive and specific V-PLEX immunoassays. Nonparametric statistical methods were used for analysis, adjusting for a false discovery rate of 5%.

Results: 1) The maternal plasma concentrations of pyrogenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) were significantly higher in patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term than in those with spontaneous term labor without clinical chorioamnionitis; 2) the maternal plasma concentrations of cytokines were not significantly different among the three subgroups of patients with clinical chorioamnionitis (intra-amniotic inflammation with and without detectable bacteria and those without intra-amniotic inflammation); and 3) among women with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis, but without evidence of intra-amniotic inflammation, the maternal plasma concentrations of pyrogenic cytokines were significantly higher than in patients with spontaneous labor at term. These observations suggest that a fever can be mediated by increased circulating concentrations of these cytokines, despite the absence of a local intra-amniotic inflammatory response.

Conclusions: 1) The maternal plasma concentrations of pyrogenic cytokines (e.g. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) are higher in patients with intra-partum fever and the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term than in those in spontaneous labor at term without a fever; and 2) maternal plasma cytokine concentrations have limited value in the identification of patients with bacteria in the amniotic cavity. Accurate assessment of the presence of intra-amniotic infection requires amniotic fluid analysis.

Abstract

Objective: Microbial invasion of the fetus due to intra-amniotic infection can lead to a systemic inflammatory response characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines in the umbilical cord plasma/serum. Clinical chorioamnionitis represents the maternal syndrome often associated with intra-amniotic infection, although other causes of this syndrome have been recently described. The objective of this study was to characterize the umbilical cord plasma cytokine profile in neonates born to mothers with clinical chorioamnionitis at term, according to the presence or absence of bacteria and/or intra-amniotic inflammation.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, including patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (n=38; cases) and those with spontaneous term labor without clinical chorioamnionitis (n=77; controls). Women with clinical chorioamnionitis were classified according to the results of amniotic fluid culture, broad-range polymerase chain reaction coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentration into three groups: 1) no intra-amniotic inflammation; 2) intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable microorganisms; or 3) microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) was defined as an umbilical cord plasma IL-6 concentration >11 pg/mL. The umbilical cord plasma concentrations of 29 cytokines were determined with sensitive and specific V-PLEX immunoassays. Nonparametric statistical methods were used for analysis, adjusting for a false discovery rate of 5%.

Results: 1) Neonates born to mothers with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (considered in toto) had significantly higher median umbilical cord plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-16, IL-13, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8, but significantly lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α concentrations than neonates born to mothers with spontaneous term labor without clinical chorioamnionitis; 2) neonates born to mothers with clinical chorioamnionitis at term but without intra-amniotic inflammation had higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-8, but lower IFN-γ, than neonates not exposed to clinical chorioamnionitis, suggesting that maternal fever in the absence of intra-amniotic inflammation leads to a change in the fetal cytokine network; 3) there were significant, positive correlations between maternal and umbilical cord plasma IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations (IL-6: Spearman correlation=0.53; P<0.001; IL-8: Spearman correlation=0.42; P<0.001), consistent with placental transfer of cytokines; 4) an elevated fetal plasma IL-6 (>11 pg/mL), the diagnostic criterion for FIRS, was present in 21% of cases (8/38), and all these neonates were born to mothers with proven intra-amniotic infection; and 5) FIRS was associated with a high concentration of umbilical cord plasma IL-8, IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1.

Conclusions: Neonates born to mothers with clinical chorioamnionitis at term had higher concentrations of umbilical cord plasma cytokines than those born to mothers without clinical chorioamnionitis. Even neonates exposed to clinical chorioamnionitis but not to intra-amniotic inflammation had elevated concentrations of multiple cytokines, suggesting that intrapartum fever alters the fetal immune response.