The relationship between hygroscopicity and the microsurface of heated wood was examined using
the fractal surface dimensionality. The hygroscopicity of heated wood decreased with the increase
in heating temperature to 250°C, and then decreased again above 350°C after increasing up
to 350°C. This change corresponded to chemical changes in the wood, especially a reduction in hydroxyl
groups, up to 250°C, and to the temperature dependence of the fractal dimensionality calculated
from nitrogen gas adsorption above 250°C. The fractal dimensionality increased gradually
from 100 to 250°C, followed by a rapid increase above 250°C with a peak at 350°C, and leveled off
above 400°C. From the results, it is concluded that hygroscopicity of heated wood changes at
250°C and that it is dependent upon the chemical properties of wood below 250°C and upon the
surface complexity above 250°C.
Electron count is one of the key factors controlling the formation of complex intermetallic structures. The delocalized nature of bonding in metals, however, has made it difficult to connect these electron counts to the various structural features that make up complex intermetallics. In this article, we illustrate how structural progressions in transition metal-main group intermetallics can in fact be simply understood with the 18-n bonding scheme, using as an example series the four binary phases of the Os–Al system. Our analysis begins with the CsCl-type OsAl phase, whose 11 electrons/Os count is one electron short of that predicted by the 18-n rule. This electron deficiency provides a driving force for Al incorporation to make more Al-rich intermetallic phases. In the structures of Os2Al3 (own type) and OsAl2 (MoSi2 type), each additional Al atom contributes three electrons, two of which go towards cleaving Os–Os isolobal bonds, with the third alleviating the original electron deficiency of OsAl. Across the series, the framework of isolobal Os–Os bonds is reduced from a primitive cubic network (n=6, OsAl) to layers of cubes (n=5, Os2Al3) to individual square nets (n=4, OsAl2). Upon adding more Al to form Os4Al13, the Os–Os contacts are further reduced to dumbbells at the interfaces between fluorite-type columns. At this point, the added Al raises the electron count beyond that needed for filled octadecets on the Os atoms; the excess electrons are accommodated by Al–Al bonds. Throughout this work, we emphasize how the 18-n scheme can be applied from structural inspection alone, with theoretical calculations confirming or refining these conclusions.