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  • Author: Janet Holmes x
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This paper reviews research relating to Māori varieties of English in New Zealand. Research on linguistic features of Māori English is first summarized, and then some of the ways in which Māori and Pākehā conversationalists use English differently in relation to a number of speech functions are explored. The structural features reviewed include phonological, syntactic, lexical, and semantic features of Māori English. Pragmatic features are also considered, including the distinctive high-rising terminal intonation contour, the pragmatic tag eh, and similarities and differences between Pākehā and Māori in the use of verbal feedback in English conversation. Some features of the structure of spontaneous narratives told by Māori and Pākehā are discussed, as well as differences in the way humor is used by Māori and Pākehā New Zealanders in relaxed conversations. The paper concludes by indicating some of the most obvious areas for further research.