Irisin was initially discovered as a novel hormone-like myokine released from skeletal muscle during exercise to improve obesity and glucose dysfunction by stimulating the browning of white adipose tissue. Emerging evidence have indicated that irisin also affects brain function. FNDC5 mRNA and FNDC5/irisin immunoreactivity are present in various regions of the brain. Central irisin is involved in the regulation of neural differentiation and proliferation, neurobehavior, energy expenditure and cardiac function. Elevation of peripheral irisin level stimulates hippocampal genes related to neuroprotection, learning and memory. In this brief review, we summarize the current understanding on neuronal functions of irisin. In addition, we discuss the pros and cons for this molecule as a potential messenger mediating the crosstalk between skeletal muscle and central nervous system during exercise.
This paper establishes the boundedness of the variation operators associated with Riesz transforms and commutators generated by the Riesz transforms and BMO-type functions in the Schrödinger setting on the weighted Morrey spaces related to certain nonnegative potentials belonging to the reverse Hölder class.
Library and information science educators have long sought to internationalize scholarship to enrich the quality of educational programs and professional practice. But many obstacles restrict the size and growth of traditional international education efforts, particularly in developing countries. This article presents a case study that uses emerging distance education techniques to deliver a graduate course on knowledge management in The Peoples' Republic of China and the United States. Sponsored by the U. S. Fulbright program, this demonstration project blends learning technologies, using Web-based WebCT software, videoconferencing, personal contacts and readings to create an international, virtual learning space. The article describes how faculty and students achieved the three course goals: (1) learning to learn internationally, (2) bilateral communication and (3) knowledge management. Findings and recommendations support the following conclusions: using active learning pedagogies that engage the students in the learning process; applying multiple technologies that can be supported internationally; maximizing the use of two-way, asynchronous and synchronous communication to encourage individual and group learning; and focusing on broad, interdisciplinary content to facilitate participation in international learning environments.