The primary aim of the article is to present the scope and character of tourism in Łódź, between 2000 and 2014. The author will show both the overall changes in numbers of registered tourists during those 15 years, its distribution within the city in the last year, and the number and specificity of foreign arrivals (non-residents). Based on surveys in 2009-12, the author will discuss the structure of tourism in Łódź, taking into consideration one-day visitors and tourists, tourism consumption and distribution within the city space.
On the basis of empirical studies and available sources, the author presents tourism as undertaken by young Poles from Generation Y, with reference to demographic, and above all generational changes. She focuses on presenting tourism preferences and typical behaviour. The analysis shows that their behaviour is similar to those observed by Generation Y globally. The similarities are also visible in tourism - new, post-modernist trends, such as gap year and internet couch surfing portals, as forms of independent travel organization, are becoming more and more popular. On the other hand, the consumptionist habits of Generation Y (preferences for comfort and entertainment), as well as an orientation towards family and friends, frequently travelling companions, can also be observed
The article presents the concept of generation-based ‘tourism space’ research using the holiday biography method. The author refers to her earlier research conducted among three generations of Łodź families. She discusses the biography method used in the research and approaches it from a geo-biographical point of view, showing possible ways of recording the phenomenon (the particular character of the source material collected) and the various options available at later stages of research - interpretation (choosing the analysis, measurement and presentation methods) - and generalization
The Oudlajan revitalization project proposed in the article, relates to both its contemporary needs and its potential. In its idea, the project uses the Iranian tradition of ‘hangout’ and refers to current trends in spending leisure time as well as shaping (designing) inclusive urban space. In terms of purpose, the project presented is applied, and in terms of methods used, it is a descriptive and analytical (qualitative) study. The article is also a voice in the debate on tourism and urban regeneration. By displaying Persian conditions in shaping the foodscape (tourism taste-space), it contributes to the dynamically-developing research on food tourism and urban culinary space.
Despite vaccination against avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV), cases of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) caused by aMPV field strains are frequently reported. Differences have been shown in the level of immune system stimulation after aMPV vaccination between turkeys that do and do not possess specific anti-aMPV maternally derived antibodies (MDA). The article describes the influence of MDA on the production of IFNγ in the spleen of aMPV-vaccinated turkeys.
Material and Methods
MDA+ or MDA− turkeys were vaccinated against TRT after hatching or on the 14th day of life. Spleen samples were collected 3, 7, and 14 days post vaccination for mononuclear cell isolation. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and the enzyme-linked immunospot assay were used to evaluate the levels of IFNγ gene expression, production, and secretion by cells within the spleen samples.
Increased IFNγ gene expression was noticed after vaccination only in birds that did not possess MDA or possessed MDA at relatively low level (MDA+ birds vaccinated at 14 DOL). In all birds, an increased percentage of T lymphocytes producing IFNγ was recorded. The proportion of anti-aMPV IFNγ-secreting cells was increased only in MDA− birds.
Besides having a protective role, MDA are known to interfere with vaccination efficacy. The analysis of our results confirms that MDA can decrease the level of immune system stimulation after aMPV vaccination of turkeys.
Wielolekowa chemioterapia stanowi podstawę współczesnych metod leczenia nowotworów układu krwiotwórczego u dzieci. Stosując poszczególne grupy leków, należy mieć na uwadze ewentualne ich skutki uboczne, m.in. zaburzenia gastroenterologiczne. Prezentujemy przypadki kliniczne dwóch pacjentów z ostrą białaczką limfoblastyczną, leczonych w Klinice Hematologii, Onkologii i Transplantologii Dziecięcej w Lublinie, u których powikłaniem chemioterapii była perforacja jelit. W obydwu przypadkach w trakcie leczenia indukcyjnego wystąpiły silne bóle brzucha. W badaniu fizykalnym stwierdzono wzdęcie brzucha, brak perystaltyki, wypuk bębenkowy, a w wykonanym zdjęciu radiologicznym jamy brzusznej cechy niedrożności oraz perforacji jelit. W trybie pilnym wykonano zabieg chirurgiczny. Zarówno operacja, jak i czas rekonwalescencji były przyczyną długich przerw w chemioterapii, co mogło wpływać na rokowanie. Dotychczas nie zostały opracowane algorytmy dotyczące postępowania w przypadku perforacji u pediatrycznych pacjentów onkologicznych. Szeroko rozumiana profilaktyka stanowi niekwestionowaną rolę w zapobieganiu działaniom niepożądanym leków.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the properties of diamond-like carbon DLC coatings with ionic liquids and cutting fluid containing zinc aspartate used as lubricants. The DLC coatings (a–C:H) were deposited onto the 100Cr6 steel substrate by physical vapour deposition PVD. The surface morphology testing, cross section and chemical composition analyses of the DLC coatings were performed using the scanning electron microscope, equipped with an EDS microanalyzer. Surface geometry measurements prior to and after tribological tests were performed on a confocal microscope with interferometry. The tribological tests were carried out on an Anton Paar TRB3 tribometer under technically dry friction and lubricated conditions with an ionic liquid, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide and 1–butyl– 3–methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide and cutting fluid with zinc aspartate. The results show that DLC coatings and ionic liquids can significantly reduce resistance to motion.
The use of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) is increasing in a variety of industrial fields. They have been applied in the manufacture of mounting tapes, self-adhesive labels, protective films, masking tapes, splicing tapes, carrier-free tapes, sign and marking films, and in diverse medical products, such as pads or self-adhesive bioelectrodes. In this study, the application of SiO2 nanoparticles in acrylic PSA was investigated. The properties of the newly synthesized and modified PSA were evaluated via the tack, peel adhesion, shear-strength and shrinkage. It has been found that the nanotechnologically-reinforced systems consisting of monodisperse non-agglomerated SiO2 nanoparticles and self-crosslinked acrylic PSAs showed a great enhancement in tack, peel adhesion, shear resistance and shrinkage, without showing the disadvantages known to result from the use of other inorganic additives. In this paper we evaluate the performance of SiO2 nanoparticles with a size of about 30 nm as inorganic filler into the synthesized solvent-borne acrylic PSA.
This work investigated the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 photocatalysts modified with graphitic carbon under visible light with a very small component of UV. The graphitic carbon modification was conducted at 200-500 °C using thermal anthracene decomposition. The increase of calcination temperature leads to typical increase of crystallites size, decrease of the specific surface area and carbon content in modified samples. The characteristic peak for a skeletal in-plane vibrations of the anthracene ring located at 1522 cm-1 as well as the band at 1410 cm-1 assigned to C=C aromatic stretching vibrations mode were possible to observe. The analysis of the morphology using SEM confirmed the presence on new multi-layer carbonaceous flakes decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM analysis and Raman studies proved the presence of graphitic structures covering the surface of the prepared TiO2/C photocatalysts. The highest photocatalytic activity, calculated on the basis of phenol photodegradation under visible light, was found for the photocatalyst modified with graphitic carbon at 400 °C (TiO2/C-400).
In this study a photocatalytic performance of new carbon-modified titanium dioxide photocatalysts was discussed. Benzene was used as carbon precursor. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of obtained samples increases with the increase of modification temperature and decrease of carbon concentration present in TiO2/C samples. This could be related to the kind of interactions between TiO2 surface and carbon from thermal decomposition of benzene. The higher calcination temperature the less carbon deposits on the surface of modified samples and the higher probability of the Ti and C interaction confirmed by means of UV-vis/DR studies. It was proved that the photocatalytic activity of carbon modified titania nanomaterials strongly depends on carbon content in TiO2/C photocatalysts. Modification of starting TiO2 with benzene is a promising method especially by taking into account the mineralization of phenol and the co-products of its degradation.