Chemical studies on element 104, rutherfordium (Rf), at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) are reviewed. The transactinide nuclide 261Rf has been produced in the reaction 248Cm(18O, 5n) at the JAERI tandem accelerator with the production cross section of about 13 nb. On-line anion-exchange experiments on Rf together with the lighter homologues, group-4 elements Zr and Hf, in acidic solutions have been conducted with a rapid ion-exchange separation apparatus. From the systematic study of the anion-exchange behavior of Rf, it has been found that the properties of Rf in HCl and HNO3 solutions are quite similar to those of Zr and Hf, definitely confirming that Rf is a member of the group-4 elements. However, we have observed an unexpected chemical behavior of Rf in HF solutions; the fluoride complex formation of Rf is significantly different from those of the homologues. Prospects of extending chemical studies on transactinide elements in the near future at JAERI are briefly considered.
Anion-exchange chromatography of element 105, dubnium (Db), produced in the 248Cm( 19F, 5n) 262Db reaction is investigated together with the homologues Nb and Ta, and the pseudo-homologue Pa in 13.9 M hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Db on an anion-exchange resin is successfully determined by running cycles of 1702 chromatographic column separations. The result clearly indicates that the adsorption of Db on the resin is significantly different from that of the homologues and that the adsorption of anionic fluoro complexes of these elements decreases in the sequence of Ta≈ Nb>Db≥Pa.
Formation of anionic fluoride-complexes of element 104, rutherfordium, produced in the 248Cm(18O,5n) 261Rf reaction was studied by anion-exchange on an atom-at-a-time scale. It was found that the hexafluoro complex of Rf, [RfF6]2−, was formed in the studied fluoride ion concentrations of 0.0005–0.013 M. Formation of [RfF6]2− was significantly different from that of the homologues Zr and Hf, [ZrF6]2− and [HfF6]2−; the evaluated formation constant of [RfF6]2− is at least one-order of magnitude smaller than those of [ZrF6]2− and [HfF6]2−.
The Smoking Behaviour Sub Group of the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA) was set up in 1996 with the aims of reviewing information relevant to smoking behaviour, publishing the reviews, identifying gaps in information and suggesting suitable studies. So far three reviews have been published by members of the sub group (1-3) and other reviews are in progress. One aspect of the subject that has become apparent to the sub group is that terms are used inconsistently in various papers on smoking behaviour. We therefore propose that the following terms and their definitions are used in the future.
The extraction behavior of rutherfordium (Rf) into tributylphosphate (TBP) from hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been studied together with those of the lighter group-4 elements Zr and Hf. The extractability of 261Rf, 169Hf, and 85Zr into TBP was investigated under identical conditions in 7.2–8.0 M HCl by on-line reversed-phase extraction chromatography. The percent extractions of Rf, Hf, and Zr into the TBP resin increase steeply with increasing HCl concentration, and the order of extraction is Zr > Hf ≈ Rf. By considering the order of chloride complexation among these elements, it is suggested that the stability of the TBP complex of Rf tetrachloride is lower than those of Zr and Hf.