Background: Heavy metals generate free radicals and induce oxidative and nitrosative stress with depletion of antioxidants. In this study, we have evaluated the beneficial effects of α-tocopherol against nickel sulfate exposed testicular dysfunction.
Methods:We studied the effect of supplementation of α-tocopherol (10 mg/100 g body weight, i.m.) on nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.) induced testicular oxidative and nitrosative stress in Wister strain male albino rats. Serum and testicular nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and serum α-tocopherol concentrations were evaluated. We also evaluated sperm count, motility and histopathology of testes.
Results:Nickel treated rats showed significantly decreased body weight, testicular somatic index, sperm count, sperm motility, serum and testicular L-ascorbic acid concentration and serum α-tocopherol level as compared to their controls. However, simultaneous treatment with nickel sulfate and α-tocopherol produced a remarkable improvement of all the above parameters when compared with treatment with nickel alone. Nickel treated rats also had significantly increased serum and testicular nitric oxide concentrations as compared to their controls. However, simultaneous treatment with nickel sulfate and α-tocopherol significantly decreased nitric oxide concentrations in both serum and testes, respectively, as compared to nickel treatment alone. Histopathology of the testes revealed tortuous seminiferous tubules, loss of spermatogenesis process (>75%), congestion and necrosis in nickel sulfate treated rats, whereas rats simultaneously treated with nickel sulfate and α-tocopherol had almost normal seminiferous tubules and near normal spermatogenesis as compared to nickel alone treated rats.
Conclusions: Nickel sulfate treatment causes testicular oxidative and nitrosative stress in albino rats, but simultaneous supplementation of α-tocopherol was found to be beneficial in combating against such stresses.
Inherently poor soil fertility and non-adoption of fertilizer recommendations based on soil test and yield targets by farmers limit the productivity and profitability from monsoon rice in Bangladesh and much of South Asia. In the Level Barind Tract (LBT; AEZ-25) and the High Ganges River Floodplain (HGR; AEZ-11) agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Bangladesh, monsoon (aman/kharif) season transplanted rainfed rice (known as T. aman rice) is grown in large areas after maize, wheat and/or mungbeans, with residues of each crop removed from the field after grain harvest. This results in lower grain yield and lower profits in these AEZs as compared with other AEZs. Nutrient management, based on soil test, yield targets, or integrated use of inorganics and organics for each AEZ together with retention of crop residue, has the potential to increase rice yield, reduce production cost and increase income. With this hypothesis, this study was conducted to determine the optimum nutrient management practices for achieving higher yield, maintaining apparent soil nutrient balance, and obtaining high profits from monsoon rice. Twelve nutrient management options were evaluated, of which the first six were: (i) 80-16-44-12-2 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, S, Zn respectively for a high yield goal (T1; ‘HYG’); (ii) 56-12-32-8- 1.5 kg ha-1 respectively for a medium yield goal (T2; ‘MYG’); (iii) 65-13-32-9-2 kg ha-1 respectively plus 5 t ha-1 cowdung as integrated plant nutrient management system (T3, ‘IPNS’); (iv) 67-14-41-9-2 kg ha-1 respectively as a soil test-based fertilizer management strategy (T4; ‘STB’); (v) 40-9-11-0-0 kg ha-1 respectively as per farmers’ practice (T5; ‘FP’) and (vi) 0-0-0-0-0 kg ha-1 as a control (T6; ‘CON’). The remaining six treatments were the same as above but each also included the crop residue incorporation (CRI), i.e., (vii) T7, ‘HYG+CRI’; (viii) T8, ‘MYG+CRI’; (ix) T9, ‘IPNS+CRI’; (x) T10, ‘STB+CRI’; (xi) T11 ‘FP’+CRI’; and (xii) T12, ‘CON+CRI’. In both AEZs, STB plus CRI resulted in the highest rice yield (p≤0.05) followed by ‘STB’ and ‘IPNS+CRI’. In comparison with ‘FP’ and ‘CON’, each without CRI, balances were positive (p≤0.05) for P, S, Zn and B but were negative for N and K in ‘HYG’, ‘MYG’, ‘IPNS’ and ‘STB’ with or without CRI. In both AEZS, STB nutrient management had the highest (p≤0.05) net returns (526 & 487 US$ ha-1, respectively), highest benefit cost ratio (BCR; 3.54 & 3.36) and highest marginal benefit cost ratio (MBCR; 10.47 & 10.19). These were followed by STB+CRI’ and ‘IPNS’, while they were lowest (p≤0.05) for CON and FP. We recommend that nutrient application, based on soil test with incorporation of mungbean residue, followed by IPNS, could be the best strategies for achieving high yield, improving soil fertility and for fetching a higher profit from monsoon rice in Bangladesh and similar soils and growing environments of South Asia.
New hybrid molecules containing fluoroquinolone-barbiturate moieties were synthesized via simple routes, followed by characterization using various spectroscopic approaches. The THF solvent molecule was incorporated into compounds 2 and 3 through its oxygen atom based on its nucleophilicity. Facile displacement of the chloride ion in 4-oxoquinoline-3-carbonyl chloride by the nucleophilic methylene carbon of 1,3-dialkylbarbiturate/thiobarbiturate afforded the respective hybrids 5 and 6.