Readily accessible and highly stable alkenyl- and aryl[2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]dimethylsilanes cross-couple with various aryl and alkenyl halides under mild reaction conditions employing K2CO3 as a base at 35-80 °C. The reaction tolerates a diverse range of functional groups including silyl protections. The silicon residue, cyclic silyl ether, is readily recovered and reused on a gram-scale synthesis. Intramolecular coordination of a proximal hydroxyl group is considered to efficiently form pentacoordinated silicates having a transferable group at an axial position.
The cyclic monoterpene ketone (−)-carvone was metabolized by the plant pathogenic fungus Absidia glauca. After 4 days of incubation, the diol 10-hydroxy-(+)-neodihydrocarveol was formed. The absolute configuration and structure of the crystalline substance was identified by means of X-ray diffraction and by spectroscopic techniques (MS, IR and NMR). The antimicrobial activity of the substrate and metabolite was assayed with human pathogenic microorganisms.
Subthreshold depression (StD) is more common than major depressive disorder.
The study aimed to identify common words to improve self-confidence in Japanese university students with StD for developing a smartphone application to help those with StD.
In this cross-sectional study, words participants used to improve their self-confidence were gathered using self-report questionnaires in 154 university students in Japan. The words used to improve self-confidence were categorized using a computerized text analysis method based on the frequency of appearance.
Participants were 154 male and females [StD group (n = 82) and healthy control (HC) group (n = 72); median age = 20 years]. A total of 290 words for improving self-confidence were identified. In the StD group, the keywords that appeared with the highest frequencies were “can”, “let’s try”, “good luck”, “able”, and “don’t worry”. The keywords that occurred with the highest frequencies (the top eight) were common across both groups. The keywords were grouped into eight categories. The “encouragement” and “praise” categories were found in the responses of more than 80% of participants in both groups. Frequencies of the “determination” and “trust” categories were significantly higher in the StD group than in the HC group.
We conclude that “can”, “let’s try”, and “good luck” are the most common words that Japanese students with StD use when describing how they improve their self-confidence. Future work will use these common words to develop a smartphone application to help those suffering from StD.
This paper describes a system integration for a life-sized robot working at a kitchen. On cooking tasks, there should be various tools and foods, and cooking table may have reflective surface with blots and scratch. Recognition functions should be robust to noises derived from them. As other problems, cooking behaviors impose motion sequences by using whole body of the robot. For instance, while cutting a vegetable, the robot has to hold one hand against the vegetable even if another hand with a knife should be moved for the cutting. This motion requires to consider full articulation of the robot simultaneously. That is, we have difficulties against both recognition and motion generation. In this paper we propose recognition functions that are to detect kitchen tools such as containers and cutting boards. These functions are improved to overcome the influence of reflective surface, and combination shape model with task knowledge is also proposed. On the other hand, we pointed out the importance of the use of torso joints while dual arm manipulation. Our approach enables the robot to keep manipulability of both arms and viewing field of a head. Based on these products, we also introduce an integrated system incorporating recognition modules and motion generation modules. The effectiveness of the system was proven through some cooking applications.