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  • Author: K.D. Kang x
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Female, male and total fertility variations were estimated in a base population and a seed orchard derived from the base population in Pinus brutia. Relative status number for gametes (female and male contribution) and zygotes (average of female and male contribution) were estimated based on the fertility variation. Average female and male strobilus production were 229.1 and 1003.3 in the base population, and 98.9 and 244.9 in the seed orchard for combined years, respectively. Positive and significant correlations were found between female and male strobilus production in both base population and seed orchard. The male fertility variation was higher than female fertility variation in the seed orchard, while female fertility variation was higher than male fertility variation in the base population. Coefficients of variations in female and male strobilus production were 0.721 and 0.696 in the base population, and 0.403 and 1.110 in the seed orchard for combined years, respectively. Total fertility variation was 1.41 in the base population and 1.40 in the seed orchard for combined years. The relative status numbers estimated based on the total fertility were 70% of census number in the base population, and 71% in the seed orchard for combined years.


Clonal differences in the number of male and female strobili were determined for five consecutive years in a clonal seed orchard of Pinus thunbergii in Korea. The effects of relatedness and clonal differences in reproductive development on gene diversity of seed (in terms of accumulated relatedness by status number) were estimated. While clonal differences were found, fertility variation was not large through all studied years. The orchard clones were divided into different regions and locations based on the geographical distribution and distance of natural stands that plus trees were selected from. Assuming that there was no relatedness among regions, locations and clones, the status number (Ns) was varied from 47.6 to 55.5 for five successive years. On average (pooling), Ns was 92% of census number (N). Assumed relatedness among regions, locations and/or clones decreased the status number. Effect of parental selection on relatedness and orchard management was also discussed.


Growth characteristics and fertility variations were evaluated at four natural stands of tropical arid zone species, A. leucophloea in southern India. Three stands (TNL 1, TNL 2 and PDM) were situated in dry upland regions while one stand (RKP) was at waterlogged site. The tree height and girth at breast height did not vary between stands in two years. Fertility variation (sibling coefficient, ψ) was estimated based on flowering abundance and fruit set collected for two consecutive years. Fruit production per tree was generally lower in the RKP stand than the other three stands. No year-to-year variation was observed on fruit set in all stands. Growth and flower production showed a weak-positive correlation in both years (R2 = 0.39 to 0.1). The correlation to check if the larger inflorescence size, the higher number of fruit production was also failed. Male fertility variation did not vary much among stands (ψm = 1.28 ~ 1.62). Female fertility variation was low (ψf = 1.71 ~ 2.02) in the three stands situated in dry upland regions than the RKP stand (ψf = 4.09 ~ 4.16). The cumulative contribution of trees to the overall fertility was deviated from the ideal situation (equal contribution) in all stands, especially the RKP stand showed a skewed distribution (R2 ≤ 6.5). The effective population size was low in the RKP predicting a high genetic drift when compared with other sites. Similarly high group coancestry and low gene diversity were observed in the stand RKP. The implications of fertility variation on gene diversity of the species and future management of the natural stands were also discussed.

Maritime East Asia in Global History, 1550–1700