The crystal structure of Al4B2O9, synthesized from Al(NO)3·9H2O and B(OH)3 via a sol-gel process, is studied and characterized by Rietveld refinements and grid search analyses combined with 11B and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The aluminum borate with a unit-cell composition of Al32B16O72 is closely related to the boralsilite (Al32B12Si4O74) structure with Si replaced by B and to mullite (Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x). It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m, a = 14.8056(7) Å, b = 5.5413(2) Å, c = 15.0531(6) Å, β = 90.913(2)°, Z = 8 for Al4B2O9. The main structural units are isolated chains of edge-sharing AlO6-octahedra running parallel to b that is a characteristic feature of the mullite-type crystal structures. The octahedral chains are crosslinked by AlO4, AlO5, BO3, and BO4 groups with two B atoms and one O atom (O5′) disordered on interstitial positions. 27Al and 11B NMR studies confirm the presence of sixfold (octahedral), fivefold, and fourfold (tetrahedral) coordinated Al (sixfold:[fourfold + fivefold] = ~50%:50%) and of threefold and fourfold coordinated B (~80%:20%).
A statement by a group of economists and scientists which met at Stanford University on October 18, 2008 to discuss the role of research and development in developing effective policies for addressing the adverse potential consequences of climate change.