Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%). There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees) and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees).
The experiment conducted in the Kampinos National Park since 2015 was aimed at assessing the sprouting ability of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in response to different measures of mechanical control and mycobiota colonizing the dying trees. Basal cut-stump, cutting at ca. 1 m above the ground and girdling were performed on 4 terms, two plots and applied to 25 trees, 600 trees in total. Sprouts were removed every 8 weeks since the initial treatment for 4 consecutive growing seasons, except winter-treated trees. At the end of the fourth season of control, 515 out of 600 trees were dead (86%): 81% on Lipków and 90% on Sieraków plot. Among 18 experiment variants with sprouts removal, 17 showed more than 80% of dead trees. The lowest, 76% share, concerned summer cut-stump at the base of the tree. For winter measures, the share of dead trees was lower in all cases and ranged from 28% to 64% proving that sprouts removal contributes to the drop of sprouting strength and quicker dying of the trees. Almost 80% of trees showed sporocarps that represented 51 taxa of macrofungi in total, including 6 Ascomycota and 45 Basidiomycota. The group of six most frequently encountered fungi includes: Hyphoderma setigerum, Bjerkandera adusta, Peniophora cinerea, Armillaria ostoyae, Nectria cinnabarina, Stereum hirsutum. Both plots had similar share of black cherry individuals with sporocarps of macrofungi, that is, 81% and 78% for Sieraków and Lipków respectively. The share of colonized trees and the number of reported macrofungal taxa increased significantly compared to the year following the treatment. In addition, the composition of macrofungi changed with the progressing dying of trees. These results broaden the knowledge about macroscopic fungi colonising and living on black cherry within its secondary range of distribution. Moreover, one macrofungus and two microfungi new for KNP are reported.
This paper presents the results of an inventory of plant communities of the urban forests in Warsaw. It covers the occurrence of forest associations and forest plant communities in individual forest complexes. Due to their location within the boundaries of a large urban agglomeration, Warsaw’s city forests are particularly exposed to anthropopressure. The share of various degrees of degeneration and dominant forms of degeneration in individual complexes and over the whole surface under investigation was assessed. Possible causes of the conditions existing in the forests have been discussed; in particular, within the context of the development and use of these forests for tourism and recreation. Particular forests’ distinct historical origins, forestry management, and existing forms of surface protection possess fundamental significance for the determination of their current state.
The experiment conducted in the Kampinos National Park since 2015 is aimed at investigating the relationship between the dynamics of black cherry sprouting response and the type and term of implementation of the mechanical elimination procedure. It also identifies macrofungi colonizing trees undergoing eradication. Three treatments, basal cut-stump, cutting (height: ca. 1 m) and girdling, were performed on 4 terms: early and late spring, summer and winter. Each variant was conducted within two plots, and applied to 25 trees, to 600 trees in total. For two consecutive vegetation seasons, sprouts were removed approximately every 8 weeks with the exception of winter-treated trees. Qualitative data were analysed, that is, the number of trees with and without sprouts at subsequent controls, and at the end of the second season, except winter-treated trees. Initially, almost 100% of the trees cut at the base and cut high responded by sprouting. The share of trees without sprouts gradually increased during the following vegetation season, from 3rd to 5th repetition of the sprouts removal, depending on the variant of experiment. Girdling contributed to a delay in sprouting. The effectiveness of procedures, expressed as share of trees without sprouts at the end of the second vegetation season, ranged widely (12%–84%), and depended statistically significantly on the date of the treatment. The effectiveness was higher for treatments done in early (average 68%) and late spring (average 74%), as compared to those done in summer (average 35%). Mycological research concerned 600 trees, including those treated in winter, without sprouts removal. Occurrence of 26 taxa of macrofungi was confirmed on 25% of trees; most of them having wood-decaying properties. Chondrostereum purpureum was most frequent, colonizing 9% of trees. Impact of plots varying soil moisture on succession and rate of fungi colonization, and on sprouting response dynamics requires further research.