The growth characteristics and the genetic variability of 23 population of Norway spruce tested in the largest international comparative experiments IPTNS-IUFRO 1964/68 in Krynica were analysed. The studied populations belong to early and late flushing provenances from Alpine, Carpathian and north-eastern range of occurrence of species. The height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and genetic diversity of 79 trees were examined using random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) technique. The mean spruce height at the age of 45 years was 17.5 m and the DBH 20.4 cm. The average and the effective number of alleles per locus calculated for all studied populations was 0.90 and 1.20, respectively. The expected heterozygosity was 0.10. The obtained results show statistically significant relationship of the parameters of genetic variability of Norway spruces and the type of seed collection from which the IUFRO experience was established. It was found that the genetic variability of the studied population depends on the longitude and height above sea level of mother stands. No significant correlation was found between the type of seed collection and location of mother stands and height and DBH of Norway spruce. Also the growth characteristics (height and the DBH) of trees do not depend on their genetic variability.
The aim of the presented research was to analyse the efficiency of forest management as an approach to promote sustainable multifunctional forestry. A total of 17 Regional Directorates of State Forests (RDSFs) in Poland were studied with the use of data envelopment analysis (DEA). This method has been proposed and tested using criteria and indicators (C&Is) as inputs and outputs of the created models. The research process was divided into two stages: first, we analysed the efficiency of simple DEA models and models with additional variables, which allowed us to determine the major models providing the best combination of efficiency evaluation criteria. Second, we used these models to assess the efficiency of sustainable management of forests by RDSFs. According to our results, RDSFs were found to be highly efficient in converting resources into production and nonmarket results. Nevertheless, the implementation of sustainable development principles requires further actions, in order to fulfil all ecological, economic, and social functions in a more effective way. They are connected with the necessity to increase the areas of both protective forests and promotional forest complexes. Thus, the results of this study might be a valuable source of information for the planning process of forestry services at the strategic and operational levels.
Environmental pollution greatly decreases a tree’s health and results in dieback of forest stands. Owing to increasing industrial activity in the 20th century, silver fir became almost totally extinct in the Katowice Forest District. Only 19 individuals have survived to this day. The aim of the present study is to analyse growth characteristics and polymorphisms of 25 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) of the preserved trees.
The mean height of the inventoried silver firs was 19 m with a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 29 cm. Flowers were observed on few trees only. However, all trees were of high vitality without signs of fungal pathogen infections or insect outbreaks. Parameters of genetic variability, including mean effective number of alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity, were higher than that described in the literature so far and they amounted to 1.659 and 0.396, respectively.
Evolutionary processes lead to the survival of individuals best adapted to local environment. This gives rise to allele polymorphism and genetic diversity of populations. Isoenzyme proteins, which are the product of gene expression, are an effective tool for tracking these changes. On the other hand, the reproductive potential of a given population can be assessed based on its ability to produce viable and efficiently germinating seeds. The present results combine molecular analyses of isoenzyme proteins with anatomical and morphological studies of Scots pine seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was conducted in 6 populations that are characteristic of this species occurrence range in the country. The results confirm the correlation between seed weight and embryo size. They also show a population from northeastern Poland had a higher effective number of alleles and seed with lower germinative energy and capacity. There was genetic homogeneity in all except for the population from Woziwoda, which was significantly different based on the Fst test. The genetic characteristics of Scots pine from Woziwoda may be associated with the lower levels of rainfall that occur there during the growing season. The results improve our knowledge of Scots pine variability and contribute to the discussion of the impact of local environment on genetic variability.
The results of previous studies have shown high breeding values of Beskidian spruce. The aim of the study was to assess the genetic structure of seventeen Norway spruce provenances from the Beskidy Mts. tested in IPTNSIUFRO 1964/68 experiment in Krynica, which survived after massive wind damage on the plots. Polymorphism of five isozyme systems encoded in five loci was determined. The highest value of genetic diversity parameters: mean number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity was noted for progeny of spruce from the Eastern Beskidy Mts. (Na = 1.47, Ho = 0.15), and the lowest - for the provenance from the Western Beskidy Mts., Babia Góra massif and the Beskid Sądecki Mts. (Na = 1.27, Ho = 0.12). Mean genetic distance between analyzed spruce provenances was equal to 0.027.