A lot of heat will generate in mass concrete after pouring to form temperature cracks, which will reduce structural stiffness. This paper briefly introduces the principle of solid heat conduction and the cause of temperature crack formation and then used COMSOL software to simulate and analyze the mass concrete. The results showed that the simulation model had enough reliability to analyze the temperature change; the internal and external temperature of concrete rose first and then decreased; the formation of temperature crack was related to the internal and external temperature difference; the internal and external temperature difference was inversely proportional to the heat conductivity coefficient of concrete and directly proportional to the pouring temperature. Then, according to the analysis results, two measures were put forward to prevent temperature cracks in mass concrete: selecting concrete materials with high thermal conductivity, i.e., selecting coarse aggregate and fine aggregate with larger heat conductivity coefficient and reducing concrete pouring temperature, i.e., selecting cement with lower hydration heat, paying attention to temperature reduction in the process of concrete stirring, and reducing the amount of cement.
The biotransformation of triptonide by cell suspension cultures of Platycodon grandiflorum was investigated. After six days of incubation, five products were obtained. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, their structures were elucidated as epitriptolide-14-O-β-d-glucoside, 5α-hydroxytriptonide, triptolide, triptodiolide, and 2β-hydroxytriptonide, among which epitriptolide-14-O-β-d-glucoside and 5α-hydroxytriptonide are new compounds.
The effects of the surface roughness of thin films and defects on photomasks are investigated in two representative plasmonic lithography systems: thin silver film-based superlens and multilayer-based hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). Superlens can replicate arbitrary patterns because of its broad evanescent wave passband, which also makes it inherently vulnerable to the roughness of the thin film and imperfections of the mask. On the other hand, the HMM system has spatial frequency filtering characteristics and its pattern formation is based on interference, producing uniform and stable periodic patterns. In this work, we show that the HMM system is more immune to such imperfections due to its function of spatial frequency selection. The analyses are further verified by an interference lithography system incorporating the photoresist layer as an optical waveguide to improve the aspect ratio of the pattern. It is concluded that a system capable of spatial frequency selection is a powerful method to produce deep-subwavelength periodic patterns with high degree of uniformity and fidelity.
The plasticity, elastic modulus and thermal stability restrict the applications of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy foils. To improve its mechanical properties, the electrodeposited Ni-Fe alloy foils were heat treated within the temperature 900–1,150 °C. The microstructure and texture of the samples were further analyzed with a combination of SEM, XRD and EBSD. The experimental results indicated that the electrodeposited Ni-Fe alloy foil had poor mechanical properties at about 1,000 °C, which was mainly attributed to the development of a mixed grain microstructure. At 900–950 °C, the plastic and elastic modulus were greatly improved, which were owed to the uniformed microstructure and the decrease of structure defects. At 1,050–1,150 °C, the degree of the mixed grain microstructure decreased, resulting in improved plasticity and higher elastic modulus. However, the strength of the foil obviously decreased, which was mainly associated with the increase of the average grain size.
A new method has been developed to impose different redox conditions in high-temperature-pressure experiments in cold-seal pressure vessels, at 800 °C and 2000 bars. Experiments were conducted by loading a metallic filler rod into the autoclave together with H2 sensor capsules, and pressuring the autoclave with H2O. Rod materials tested successfully were Co, Ti, and C (graphite). The oxidation of these rods produces H2, but because of diffusive H2 loss through the walls of the autoclave, the system may not be buffered with respect to H2. However, fH₂ quickly reaches a steady state value, and because fH₂ is easily measured by the hydrogen sensor method, the effect of the filler rods on the intrinsic fO₂ of the autoclave can be quantified. In order to produce oxidized conditions, Ar was used as the pressure medium and metal oxides, contained in Al2O3 tubes, were employed. By using either Ar or H2O as a pressure medium, a log fO₂ range of NNO -3.9 to NNO +4.6 can be imposed by this method, where NNO is the log fO₂ value of the Ni-NiO buffer. The ability to conduct long-run-duration experiments at high temperature and high fH₂ conditions is not possible with the traditional double-capsule technique because the buffer assemblage is consumed too quickly. However, run durations of up to 4 weeks with constant fH₂ at reduced conditions have been conducted using the filler-rod technique. This technique has been shown to be an effective method in controlling redox conditions in cold-seal autoclaves, and thus can be applied to investigating redox-dependent reactions in a wide range of geochemical systems.