In the nineties of the last century the original strict input financing system for Dutch secondary education was replaced by a lump sum budgeting system. According to the criticasters of this reform this increase in discretionary powers of schools would lead to more bureaucracy in terms of management and other non-teaching staff. In this article we investigate the hypothesis of increasing layers of management and other non-teaching staff under a system of lump sum budgeting. Based on a (macro) time series analysis from 1992-2008 and a panel data analysis (2003-2007, 600 schools), we conclude that there are no indications of increased bureaucracy due to the budget reform or a systematic overuse of management and non-teaching staff under a regime of lump sum budgeting.
The application possibilities of preparative size exclusion chromatography for the detailed analysis of polymer analytes are discussed. Using the example of star-shaped polymer architecture, the possibilities of utilizing fractions obtained from preparative size exclusion chromatography and their subsequent off-line characterization with a variety of hyphenated analytic techniques are discussed and compared to one another. It was, for instance, possible to obtain an absolute SEC calibration for the investigated star-shaped polymers that showed very good agreement with theoretical expected values and values obtained by absolute molecular weight determination techniques by analyzing fractions of different molecular weights of this polymer architecture by MALDI-TOFMS in order obtain the Mp values required for SEC calibrations. Moreover, the star-shaped polymers were investigated by SEC-viscometry in order to obtain their absolute molecular weight. All analytical results are compared to each other and possibilities as well as limitations are discussed.