This article describes the reality status system of Nanti (Arawak) and argues that it constitutes an instance of a canonical reality status system. The relevance of such a system is examined in the light of literature that casts doubt on the typological validity of reality status as crosslinguistic grammatical category. It is shown that reality status is an obligatory inflectional category in Nanti, and that the distribution of realis and irrealis marking across Nanti construction types hews closely to expectations based on notional understandings of “realis” and “irrealis” categories grounded in a contrast between “realized” and “un-realized” situations. It is also shown that the Nanti reality status system does not exhibit evidence of being based, either synchronically or diachronically, on semantically narrower notions that could account for the distribution of reality status marking in the language, without recourse to the more generalized notions of realized and unrealized events. It is suggested that the Nanti reality status system might serve as a suitable canonical system around which a canonical typology of reality status might be built.
The unusual luminescence of particular varieties of natural pink calcite (CaCO3) samples was studied by laser-induced time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy at different temperatures. The luminescence is characterized by intense blue emission under shortwave UV lamp excitation with an extremely long decay time, accompanied by pink-orange luminescence under longwave UV excitation. Our investigation included optical absorption, natural thermostimulated luminescence (NTL) and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) studies. Two luminescence centers were detected: (1) a narrow violet band, with λmax = 412 nm, Δ = 45 nm, two decay components of τ1 = 5 ns and τ2 = 7.2 ms, accompanied by very long afterglow, and an orange emission band with λmax = 595 nm, Δ = 90 nm, and τ = 5 ns. Both luminescence centers are thermally unstable with the blue emission disappearing after heating at 500 °C, and the orange emission disappearing after heating at different temperatures starting from 230 °C, although sometimes it is stable up to 500 °C in different samples. Both centers have spectral-kinetic properties very unusual for mineral luminescence, which in combination with extremely low impurity concentrations prevent their identification with specific impurity related emission. The most likely explanation of these observations may be the presence of radiation-induced luminescence centers. The long violet afterglow is evidently connected with trapped charge carrier liberation, with their subsequent migration through the valence band and ultimate recombination with a radiation-induced center responsible for the unusual violet luminescence.
Iquito, a Zaparoan language of Peruvian Amazonia, marks a binary distinction between realis and irrealis clauses solely by means of a word order alternation. Realis clauses exhibit a construction in which no element intervenes between the subject and verb, while in irrealis clauses a phrasal constituent appears between the subject and verb. No free or bound morphology otherwise indicates whether an Iquito clause is realis or irrealis. Based on these facts and partially similar phenomena in other languages, this article argues that typologies of inflectional exponence should be expanded to include word order as an inflectional formative.
Matched case-control designs are currently used in many biomedical applications. To ensure high efficiency and statistical power in identifying features that best discriminate cases from controls, it is important to account for the use of matched designs. However, in the setting of high dimensional data, few variable selection methods account for matching. Bayesian approaches to variable selection have several advantages, including the fact that such approaches visit a wider range of model subsets. In this paper, we propose a variable selection method to account for case-control matching in a Bayesian context and apply it using simulation studies, a matched brain imaging study conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a matched cardiovascular biomarker study conducted by the High Risk Plaque Initiative.