Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a chronic disorder causing adrenal insufficiency and hyperandrogenism affecting the quality of life (QOL). The objective of the study was to assess the health-related QOL (HRQOL) in Egyptian children and adolescents with CAH and to identify factors affecting it.
This cross-sectional study included 200 CAH patients (with 21-hydroxylase deficiency [21-OHD]) who were assessed according to their age, sex, clinical phenotype, timing of genitoplasty, hospital admissions within the last year, compliance to treatment, regularity of follow-up, presence of complications and hormonal control. HRQOL was assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO)QOL-BREF questionnaire with four domains analyzed independently including physical, psychological, social and environmental domains, with higher scores indicating better QOL.
The study included 140 females and 60 males with a mean age of 6.6 ± 4.5 years, and 88% were salt-wasting (SW). Older patients had significantly lower QOL scores (r = − 0.151, p = 0.033). The physical domain correlated significantly with the degree of virilization (r = − 0.491, p = 0.001) and frequency of hospitalization (r = − 0.495, p < 0.001). The psychological domain was affected by age (r = − 0.157, p = 0.026) and timing of genitoplasty (r = − 0.326, p = 0.001), while the social domain was affected by age (r = −0.277, p < 0.005) and pubertal stage (r = − 0.195, p = 0.006). Females had lower scores at the psychological domain (p < 0.001), whereas males had lower scores at the physical domain (p = 0.003). Salt-losing patients had lower scores at the physical domain (p = 0.001). Patients with good hormonal control had higher scores at the physical domain (p = 0.03). Genitoplasty affected both psychological and social domains (p = 0.003 and 0.01, respectively). Patients with hypertension and hirsutism had lower QOL scores (p < 0.05).
HRQOL was relatively more affected in CAH patients with older age, poor hormonal control, high frequency of hospital admissions and those who developed complications.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is a common autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the CYP21A2 gene. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the most commonly reported mutations among 21-OHD Egyptian patients and correlate genotype with phenotype.
Molecular analysis of the CYP21A2 gene was performed for the detection of the six most common point mutations (p.P30L, p.I172N, p.V281L, p.Q318X, the splice site mutation Int2 [IVS2–13A/C>G], and the cluster of three mutations [p.I236N, p.V237E, and p.M239K] designed as CL6). Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed on 47 unrelated Egyptian 21α-OH deficiency patients and their available parents to detect the presence of the six most common point mutations.
Screening for the six most common point mutations in CYP21A2 gene, revealed mutations in 87.2% (82/94) of the studied alleles corresponding to 47 Egyptian patients. The most common mutation among the studied cases was IVS2-13C/A>G that was found to be presented in a frequency of 46.8% (44/94). The genotype/phenotype correlations related to null, A, and B groups were with PPV of 100, 55.5, and 83.3%, respectively.
The described method diagnosed CAH in 80.8% of the studied patients. Good correlation between genotype and phenotype in salt wasting and simple virilizing forms is determined, whereas little concordance is seen in nonclassical one. Furthermore, studying the carrier frequency of 21-OHD among the normal population is of great importance.