Melamine based polymer (MT) was prepared and then reacted with a mixture of glucose (Glu) and β-cyclodextrin (CD) under hydrothermal conditions to afford, MT/Glu-CD. Then, the adsorption of Pd salt was realized on MT/Glu-CD. The resulting compound was subsequently carbonized to furnish Pd/MT/C that exhibited high catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes in aqueous media. To elucidate the roles of CD, Glu, the molar ratio of Glu:CD and the carbonization in the catalytic activity, several control catalysts have been prepared and their performances for a model hydrogenation reaction were compared with that of Pd/MT/C. The results confirmed the importance of the carbonization as well as the presence of CD for achieving high catalytic activity. Moreover, it was found that the molar ratio of Glu:CD could affect the catalytic activity of the final catalyst and the optimum molar ratio of Glu:CD was 30:70. The recycling test as well as measurement of Pd leaching demonstrated high recyclability and low Pd leaching of Pd/MT/C.