In this paper the randomized Cauchy-Euler differential equation is studied. With this aim, from a statistical point of view, both the first and second probability density functions of the solution stochastic process are computed. Then, the main statistical functions, namely, the mean, the variance and the covariance functions are determined as well. The study includes the computation of the first and second probability density functions of the regular-singular infinite point via an adequate mapping transforming the problem about the origin. The study is strongly based upon the Random Variable Transformation technique along with some results that have been recently published by some of authors to the random homogeneous linear second-order differential equation. Finally, an illustrative example is shown.
The modification of castor oil (CO) with lignin was the focus of this research to create a lubricating medium with improved gel-like properties. Namely, an alkali lignin (L) was epoxidized with epichlorohydrin (EP) and the resulting LEPs were dispersed in CO. The parameters of LEP synthesis were varied and the epoxidation index (EPI) of the LEPs was determined. The LEPs were also submitted to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Rheological responses of the LEP/CO dispersions were investigated through small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) tests. Linear viscoelasticity functions are quantitatively affected by the epoxidation parameters, such as temperature, reaction time and L/EP and L/NaOH ratios. In general, lignins with higher EPI show higher values of the SAOS functions, which are indicative of better gel-strength due to a higher cross-linking density between the LEPs and CO. A power-law equation describes well the evolution of the complex modulus, G*, with frequency of gel-like dispersions, where the power-law parameters were found to increase almost linearly with the EPI. The thermo-rheological characterization provides a softening temperature beyond 50°C.
This paper details the main requirements that must be taken into account to assemble a phasor unit measurement (PMU) for research and educational purposes. The device's main elements are described showing their interrelationship. Likewise, details about the most important functions are exposed. Results exhibit the suitability of the proposition according to the standard.
The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalixarene, B4bL4: UO2(NO3)2(B4bL4)n· xH2O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO22+ while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 μs <τs <250 μs and 630 μs <τL < 640 μs, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f5/2,7/2), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO22+ cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B4bL4 in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths.
Background: Verification uses logical algorithms to detect potential errors before laboratory results are released to the clinician. Even though verification is one of the main processes in all laboratories, there is a lack of standardization mainly in the algorithms used and the criteria and verification limits applied. A survey in clinical laboratories in Spain was conducted in order to assess the verification process, particularly the use of autoverification.
Methods: Questionnaires were sent to the laboratories involved in the External Quality Assurance Program organized by the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology. Seven common biochemical parameters were included (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, potassium, calcium, and alanine aminotransferase).
Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 85 laboratories. Nearly all the laboratories reported using the following seven verification criteria: internal quality control, instrument warnings, sample deterioration, reference limits, clinical data, concordance between parameters, and verification of results. The use of all verification criteria varied according to the type of verification (automatic, technical, or medical). Verification limits for these parameters are similar to biological reference ranges. Delta Check was used in 24% of laboratories. Most laboratories (64%) reported using autoverification systems. Autoverification use was related to laboratory size, ownership, and type of laboratory information system, but amount of use (percentage of test autoverified) was not related to laboratory size.
Conclusions: A total of 36% of Spanish laboratories do not use autoverification, despite the general implementation of laboratory information systems, most of them, with autoverification ability. Criteria and rules for seven routine biochemical tests were obtained.
Background: Tacrolimus (Tac) is an immunosuppressive drug used to prevent post-transplant (PT) organ rejection. Continuous Tac monitoring is necessary to adjust the dose and prevent toxicity or rejection. Tac is metabolized by cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes, and variation at the CYP and other drug metabolizing enzymes could influence Tac bio-availability and dose requirements. Our aim was to define the effect of DNA variants at 16 drug metabolising enzymes on Tac dose in patients with kidney transplants.
Methods: The REDINREN Pharmacogenetics Project was a multicenter study designed to evaluate the effect of DNA polymorphisms on Tac dose requirements. A total of 200 patients who received a first cadaveric kidney and Tac as primary immunosuppressive drug were genotyped for 96 DNA polymorphisms on 16 genes. Significant associations were further replicated in a second group of 200 patients. The Tac daily dose was adjusted to achieve a blood concentration of 10–15 ng/mL in the period 0–3 months PT, and 5–10 ng/mL thereafter. The dose of tacrolimus dose and blood concentrations were compared between genotypes at 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year PT.
Results: The CYP3A5 genotype (SNP rs776746) was the strongest predictor of Tac dose requirements. Patients who were CYP3A5*3*3 (CYP3A5 non-expressors) received significantly higher Tac dose at 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year PT (p<0.0001). At 1 week, 41% of the CYP3A5 non-expressors achieved target blood concentrations compared to 26% of the CYP3A5 expressors (p=0.007). We also found a significant effect of CYP3A4 genotype (SNP rs2740574) on Tac dose requirements in patients who were CYP3A5 non-expressors. None of the other polymorphisms were related to Tac dose requirements or modified the effect of the CYP3A5 genotype.
Conclusions: rs776746 (CYP3A5) and rs2740574 (CYP3A4) were the only SNPs associated with Tac dosage. The genotyping of these polymorphisms could be a useful pharmacogenetic tool to determine the Tac dose immediately after transplantation.