Rheological characteristics of pineapple juice have been investigated and rheological parameters were evaluated using rotational viscometer at temperatures 20, 30 and 40*C at concentration 26.77, 18.99 and 14 % total solids. The experimental results followed the power law model for the best fit and the values of flow behaviour index (n) was less than unity (0.08 to 0.87) at all temperatures and concentrations indicating the shear thinning (pseudoplasticity) nature of juice. An obvious correlation between consistency coefficient in the range of 0.1 - 37.16 Pa.sn and inverse absolute temperature has been exhibited by Arrhenius model. The Power equation indicated that the consistency coefficient increased non-linearly with an increase in concentration. Mathematical models were developed for prediction of the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature and concentration. A good agreement was observed between experimental and theoretical values of the consistency coefficient predicted by models. The magnitude of activation energy was found to be in the range of 3.67 to 4.62 kJ/mol.K.
Rheological properties of tomato concentrate were evaluated using a wide-gap rotational viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Laboratories: Model LVDV-II) at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60oC, at concentration of 18, 12.18 and 8.04 % total solids, and at appropriate shear rate(1-100 RPM). The power law model was fitted to the experimental results. The values of flow behaviour index (n) were found less than unity (0.23 to 0.82) at all the temperature and the concentration indicating shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) behaviour of the concentrate. The correlation between the observed consistency coefficient ranging from 0.09 to 65.87 Pa.sn and the inverse absolute temperature has been exhibited by Arrhenius model. Consistency coefficient increased exponentially with increase in the concentration. Statistical model was used for prediction of the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature and concentration which showed a good agreement (r2=0.99) between experimental and theoretical values. The magnitude of activation energy were found to be in the range of 8.6 to 14.08 kJ/mol.K.
NASA’s new Earth-Observing satellite namely ICESat-2 estimates the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice, land surface, and canopy with the help of photon counting ATLAS sensor on-board. Higher-level data products like ATL08 uses an iterative filtering approach of the signal photons for capturing canopy height and terrain height. This article provides results from the evaluation of best-fit elevation on land from ICESat-2 ATL08 data product with DGPS surveyed points. 40 points were surveyed for elevation in the arid region with different topographies of varied surface cover. Mean bias error computed from the best-fit elevation from ICESat-2 ATL08 data product and corresponding DGPS surveyed points is near close to zero for the segments created from strong beams. The conformity between these two sets of elevation values is better than 12 cm (RMSE) if we use the segments from strong beam for the topographic variations ranging from flat to almost flat type.
For the first time in the world, the capability of red mud waste has been explored for the development of advanced synthetic radiation shielding aggregate. Red mud, an aluminium industry waste consists of multi component, multi elemental characteristics. In this study, red mud from two different sources have been utilized. Chemical formulation and mineralogical designing of the red mud has been done by ceramic processing using appropriate reducing agent and additives. The chemical analysis, SEM microphotographs and XRD analysis confirms the presence of multi-component, multi shielding and multi-layered phases in both the different developed advance synthetic radiation shielding aggregate. The mechanical properties, namely aggregate impact value, aggregate crushing value and aggregate abrasion value have also been evaluated and was compared with hematite ore aggregate and found to be an excellent material useful for making advanced radiation shielding concrete for the construction of nuclear power plants and other radiation installations.