The generation of silica undersaturated phonolite from silica saturated trachytes is uncommon, as it implies the crossing of the thermal barrier and critical plane of silica undersaturation. Nevertheless, a co-genetic suite displaying compositional transition from benmoreite-trachyte to phonolite has been observed within the Al Shaatha pyroclastic sequence in the Harrat Rahat Volcanic Field (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). We performed crystallization experiments on benmoreite and trachyte starting compositions to simulate the pressure-temperature-volatile conditions that generated the observed liquid line of descent. The experimental conditions were 200–500 MPa, 850–1150 °C, 0–10 wt% H2O, 0.0–0.5 wt% CO2, and NNO+2 oxygen buffer. The experimental mineral assemblage consists of clinopyroxene, feldspar, and titanomagnetite, as well as glass in variable proportions. The degree of crystallinity of hydrous runs is lower than that of anhydrous ones at analogous pressure and temperature conditions. Clinopyroxene crystallizes with compositions diopside-augite and augite-hedenbergite, respectively, at 500 and 200 MPa. The saturation of feldspar is primarily controlled by temperature and volatile content, with the more potassic composition equilibrating at low temperature (850–900 °C) and anhydrous (for benmoreite) or hydrous (for trachyte) conditions. At low pressure (200 MPa), temperatures below 850 °C, and anhydrous conditions, the degree of crystallization is extremely high (>90%), and the residual glass obtained from trachyte experiments is characterized by peralkaline and sodic affinity. This finding is consistent with natural eruptive products containing interstitial phonolitic glass within an anorthoclase framework. The shift from trachyte to phonolite is therefore interpreted as the result of open system interaction between trachytic magma and intercumulus phonolitic melt, as well as of dissolution of anorthoclase from a crystal mush.
The Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) hosts numerous alkali basaltic volcanic fields in an area similar to 200 000 km2. These volcanic fields were formed in an approximate time span of 8 million years producing smallvolume volcanoes typically considered to be monogenetic. Polycyclic monogenetic volcanic complexes are also common in each field however. The original morphology of volcanic landforms, especially phreatomagmatic volcanoes, is commonly modified. by erosion, commonly aided by tectonic uplift. The phreatomagmatic volcanoes eroded to the level of their sub-surface architecture expose crater to conduit filling as well as diatreme facies of pyroclastic rock assemblages. Uncertainties due to the strong erosion influenced by tectonic uplifts, fast and broad climatic changes, vegetation cover variations, and rapidly changing fluvio-lacustrine events in the past 8 million years in the Pannonian Basin have created a need to reconstruct and visualise the paleoenvironment into which the monogenetic volcanoes erupted. Here phreatomagmatic volcanic fields of the Miocene to Pleistocene western Hungarian alkali basaltic province have been selected and compared with modern phreatomagmatic fields. It has been concluded that the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) in New Zealand could be viewed as a prime modern analogue for the western Hungarian phreatomagmatic fields by sharing similarities in their pyroclastic successions textures such as pyroclast morphology, type, juvenile particle ratio to accidental lithics. Beside the AVF two other, morphologically more modified volcanic fields (Pali Aike, Argentina and Jeju, Korea) show similar features to the western Hungarian examples, highlighting issues such as preservation potential of pyroclastic successions of phreatomagmatic volcanoes.
The Sungun copper–molybdenum porphyry deposit is located in the north of Varzaghan, northwestern Iran. The Sungun quartz-monzonite is the oldest mineralized intrusive body in the region and was emplaced during the Early Miocene. Eight categories of the late and unmineralized dykes, which include quartz diorite, gabbrodiorite, diorite, dacite, microdiorite and lamprophyre (LAM), intrude the ore deposit. The main mineral phases in the dykes include plagioclase, amphibole and biotite, with minor quartz and apatite and secondary chlorite, epidote, muscovite and sericite. The composition of plagioclase in the quartz diorite dykes (DK1a, DK1b and DK1c) varies from albite-oligoclase to andesine and oligoclase to andesine; in the diorite, it varies from andesine to labradorite; in the LAM, from albite to oligoclase; and in the microdiorite (MDI), it occurs as albite. Amphibole compositions are consistent with classification as hornblende or calcic amphibole. Based on their AlIV value (less than 1.5), amphibole compositions are consistent with an active continental margin affinity. The average percentage of pistacite (Ps) in epidotes formed from alteration of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals is 27–23% and 25–30%, respectively. Thermobarometric studies based on amphibole and biotite indicate approximate dyke crystallization temperature of 850–750℃, pressure of 231–336 MPa and high fO2 (>nickel-nickel-oxide buffer). The range of mineral compositions in the postmineralization dyke suite is consistent with a genetic relationship with the subduction of the Neotethys oceanic crust beneath the continental crust of the northwest part of the Central Iranian Structural Zone. Despite the change from calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism, the dykes are likely related to the late stages of magmatic activity in the subduction system that also generated the porphyry deposit.