This study is the first investigation on seasonal dynamics of parasites component community of the Aequidens tetramerus from an Amazon River tributary, in Northern Brazil. A total of 239,2407 parasites were recovered from 92 hosts examined from February to October 2011. Such parasites included Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tripartiella tetramerii and Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa), Dolops longicauda (Argulidae), Gussevia alioides, Gussevia disparoides (Monogenoidea), Digenea metacercarie, Pseudoproleptus larvae, Anisakidae larvae (Nematoda), Proteocephalidea plerocercoid (Eucestoda) and Gorytocephalus spectabilis (Acanthocephala). Ciliates were the most dominant and abundant taxon, while cestodes were the least prevalent. The parasites showed seasonal variation in their infection dynamics associated with environmental changes during the Amazonian drainage season, except the infection with I. multifiliis. The parasites community in A. tetramerus was also characterized by higher diversity, species richness and uniformity during the drainage season when compared to Amazon flood season. With the exception of T. tetramerii, these parasite species are new records for A. tetramerus.
The present study investigated the effects of seasonal variation in parasites infracommunities of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus from a tributary of Amazon River. For H. unitaeniatus and H. malabaricus, 11 parasite species were similar, and greatest parasite richness occurred during the rainy season. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant parasite species for both hosts. In H. unitaeniatus, infection by Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju, Urocleidoides sp. and Anacanthorus sp. was higher during rainy season. Contracaecum sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Nomimoscolex matogrossensis and Gorytocephalus spectabilis showed no seasonal pattern. For H. unitaeniatus, P. pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus pestifer occurred only during dry season, while Trichodina sp., Dolops geayi, undetermined metacercariae and Posthodiplostomum sp. occurred only during the rainy season. In H. malabaricus, the prevalence of Urocleidoides eremitus was similar during the two seasons, but abundance was higher during the rainy season. Tetrahymena sp., C. marginatum, Dendrorchis neivai, undetermined metacercariae, Posthodiplostomum sp., Genarchella genarchella, Cystidicoloides sp., G. spectabilis, D. geayi, A. pestifer and Glossiphonidae gen. sp. occurred only during the dry season. However, Contracaecum sp. and P. (S.) inopinatus occurred during both seasons, but the prevalence of P. (S.) inopinatus was higher during the rainy season. Seasonal variation in this infection levels was due to the host’s feeding behavior and habits and the availability of infectious forms of parasites with heteroxenic life cycles. The non-seasonal fluctuation detected are likely a result of the parasites biology, highly variable nature of this tributary of Amazon River and low abundance of parasites.
This paper characterizes the pattern of ectoparasite and endoparasite communities in an assemblage of 35 sympatric fish from different trophic levels in a tributary from the Amazon River system, northern Brazil. In detritivorous, carnivorous, omnivorous and piscivorous hosts, the species richness consisted of 82 ectoparasites and endoparasites, but protozoan ectoparasites such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare and Tripartiella sp. were dominant species predominated, such that they were present in 80% of the hosts. The taxon richness was in the following order: Monogenea > Nematoda > Digenea > Crustacea > Protozoa > Acanthocephala = Cestoda > Hirudinea. Among the hosts, the highest number of parasitic associations occurred in Satanoperca jurupari, Aequidens tetramerus, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, Hoplosternum littorale, Cichlasoma amazonarum, Chaetobranchus flavescens, Squaliforma emarginata, Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis and Hoplias malabaricus. A weak positive correlation between ectoparasite abundance and length of the hosts was observed. Ectoparasite communities of detritivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous hosts were similar, but these differed from the communities of piscivorous hosts. Larval endoparasite species with low host specificity were the main determinants of the parasite infracommunity structure of the fish assemblage. Fish assemblage had few species of helminth that were specialist endoparasites, while many were parasites at the larval stage, infecting intermediate and paratenic hosts. Finally, carnivorous and omnivorous hosts harbored endoparasite communities that were more heterogeneous than those of detritivorous and piscivorous hosts. This result lends supports to the notion that the feeding habits of the host species are a significant factor in determining the endoparasites fauna.
The present study investigated the occurrence of metacercariae of Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum in Hoplias malabaricus in the basin of the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Twenty-nine fish were examined in June 2012 during a survey of fish and parasitic fauna. Of the fish examined, 34.5 % had infected eyes, intestine and musculature, with a mean intensity of 1.1 and an abundance of 0.4 per fish. The prevalence in the intestine was 31.0 %, with mean intensity of 1.1 and mean abundance of 0.3. In the eyes, the prevalence was 3.4 %, with a mean intensity of 1.0 and mean abundance of 1.0. The metacercaria found in the right eyeball was lodged between the cornea and iris. The low parasitism did not affect the condition factor (Kn) of the parasitized fish. This was the first report of I. dimorphum in the eyes of Hoplias malabaricus, a secondary intermediate host for this endoparasite.
Two new species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1989 are described from two cichlids from the Araguarí River, State of Amapá, northern Brazil. Sciadicleithrum edgari n. sp. from Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840) differs from all congeneric species in the morphology (hook-shaped, with middle process and distally bifurcate) of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ (MCO). Sciadiclethrum araguariensis n. sp. from Crenicichla labrina (Spix and Agassiz, 1831) can be distinguished from all other species by a Y-shaped accessory piece of MCO. In addition to the description of two new species, new host and geographical records of six dactylogyrid monogeneans from cichlid fishes are presented.
This study compared the monogeneans community in C. monoculus from the Tapajós River (state of Pará) and Jari River (state of Amapá), northern Brazil. A total of 2188 monogeneans belonging to eight taxa were collected from the gills of fish: Gussevia arilla, Gussevia longihaptor, Gussevia tucunarense, Gussevia undulata, Sciadicleithrum ergensi, Sciadicleithrum umbilicum, Sciadicleithrum uncinatum and Tucunarella cichlae. Gussevia arilla was the dominant species for C. monoculus from the Tapajós River basin, while S. umbilicum predominated among the hosts from the Jari River basin. For the two populations of C. monoculus, the prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of monogeneans were different and the of parasites community had a high qualitative similarity (87.5 %). The monogeneans community of C. monoculus was characterized by high species richness, with infection values varying from low to moderate. The geographic distance and differences in environmental characteristics arising from the same did not influence the richness of species of monogeneans infesting C. monoculus in the Tapajós and Jari rivers, but appear to have been determinants in the differences observed in the structure of the monogenean communities in each region.
Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus are Erythrinidae family widely distributed in the Amazon River system of great value to both commercial and subsistence fishing for riverine populations. As such, the objective of the present study was to investigate the endoparasite communities of H. malabaricus and H. unitaeniatus of a tributary of the Amazon River in the north of Brazil. The endoparasite communities of H. unitaeniatus and H. malabaricus were taxonomically similar (85%) and consisted of Clinostomum marginatum, Contracaecum sp., Guyanema seriei seriei, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Pseudoproleptus sp. and Gorytocephalus spectabilis, although the dominant endoparasite was C. marginatum, which was the most prevalent and abundant. All the specimens of both H. malabaricus and H. unitaeniatus were parasitized, with a total of 1237 helminths collected in the former host and 1151 helminths collected in the latter. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus possessed greater parasite species richness. Both hosts had an aggregate dispersion of parasites, and the abundance of C. marginatum, Contracaecum sp. and G. spectabilis correlated positively with the weight and length of the hosts. The condition factor was not affected by parasitism, but the abundance of C. marginatum and Contracaecum sp. increased when the condition factor of the hosts decreased. This is the first report of G. seriei seriei for H. malabaricus and Pseudoproleptus sp. for H. unitaeniatus.