In the development of human rights, various UN human rights treatises and other instruments have elaborated the rights for specific groups including women, refugees and persons with a disability, and for specific situations, including war and times of conflict. The focus in this chapter is on the Rights of the Child, its international Convention, and the rights especially relevant for public libraries. The distinction between needs-based and rights-based library governance and practice is discussed, namely newer aspects of human rights development. Child participation and co-creation are elaborated. International examples of implications and applications in libraries give context. The leading question is: in what way do the SDGs help the governance of library services in respect of children and their rights? Several SDGs are analyzed from the perspective of children, with library examples and conclusions drawn for library governance.