Seasonal variations in vegetative growth and production of two seagrass species, Zostera asiatica and Z. marina, were investigated in Akkeshi Bay, northern Japan. Z. asiatica, a threatened species in Japan, was dominant, occurring from the intertidal zone to the deepest edge of the seagrass bed (5 m deep), whereas Z. marina was restricted to the shallower edge of the bed (<2 m). Above ground biomass and above ground net production per shoot were greater for Z. asiatica than for Z. marina. In contrast, shoot density was 3- to 4-fold higher for Z. marina. Biomass and production were minimum in winter to early spring (January to March), and maximum in summer (June to July) for both species. Annual production per unit area of Z. asiatica was larger than that of Z. marina (2033 and 1354 g DW m-2 y-1, respectively). Our findings reveal contrasting growth patterns for the two species: Z. asiatica allocates more resources to enlarging shoot size, whereas Z. marina allocates more to increasing shoot density by clonal propagation of rhizomes. Seagrass beds consisting of Z. asiatica contributed importantly to coastal ecosystems in Akkeshi Bay area because of high productivity.
In May 2017, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, popularly known as Ahok, the former Christian governor of Jakarta, Indonesia, was found guilty of blasphemy and sentenced to two years in prison. Although he was released in January 2019, his trial and the various reactions it elicited continue to highlight the very sensitive and complex issues surrounding the notion and enforcement of blasphemy and how different communities talk about it. This article focuses on a discussion about the trial between an Indonesian Muslim in favor of the blasphemy charge and an Indonesian Christian opposed to it. Using positioning analysis, it investigates how their conversation in English at a University in Japan exhibited an occasioned, fluid, developing range of evaluative language, both in terms of how they talked about themselves and others. The analysis demonstrates the complex interplay and consistent tension that is often present in inter-religious dialogue, and tracks how a wide array of discourse and contextual factors relate to developing positions, storylines, expressions of social power, and strategies for conflict management. We conclude by highlighting the inherent complexity of the dynamics of such interaction and how it can lead to greater convergence and/or tension, while emphasizing the potential benefits of face-to-face conversations around issues of possible conflict.