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  • Author: Mehmet R. Genç x
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Objective: To determine the combination of amniotic fluid (AF) tests with the best diagnostic accuracy for predicting intrauterine infection/inflammation (IUI) in patients with clinical suspicion of chorioamnionitis.

Study design: This is a retrospective study of 34 pregnant women who presented with uterine tenderness, maternal fever, maternal tachycardia, and/or fetal tachycardia and underwent AF analysis. IUI diagnosis was based on placental histology, positive AF bacterial cultures, and/or Gram stain.

Result: Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between IUI and AF glucose. Glucose is more sensitive than culture or Gram stain (64% vs. 40% and 20%, [iw-0.3]respectively). Culture and glucose combined achieved the best diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, 71%; specificity, 100%; positive and negative predictive values, 100–83%, respectively).

Conclusion: Positive AF Gram stain or glucose <15 mg/dL strongly suggests IUI in symptomatic patients. If both tests are negative, the result of culture should aid the management.

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine



To assess the value of incorporating amniotic fluid (AF) analysis in the management of patients with clinical chorioamnionitis.


This was a retrospective cohort study of all women carrying a singleton fetus and managed at our center between 2000 and 2009. We included only those women suspected of chorioamnionitis based on one or more of the following: (1) uterine tenderness, (2) maternal fever, (3) maternal and/or fetal tachycardia and (4) purulent discharge. The management was deemed to be justified if (1) pregnancy was terminated <24 weeks and histology confirmed chorioamnionitis; (2) delivery was performed expeditiously after initial assessment and histology confirmed chorioamnionitis; (3) delivery was delayed for 2–7 days and the patient completed a course of antenatal steroids before 34 weeks; and (4) delivery was delayed ≥7 days and histology was not indicative of chorioamnionitis, or delivery occurred after 37 weeks. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used as appropriate.


Of the 77 women with suspected chorioamnionitis, AF analysis was performed in 43 (55.8%) cases, and the management was justified in 63 (81.8%) cases based on the aforementioned criteria. Stepwise regression analysis confirmed AF analysis as a predictor of justified management. The rates of composite morbidity, neonatal sepsis, neonatal death and admissions to neonatal intensive care unit were lower in the justified management group.


Incorporation of AF analysis into clinical assessment does improve the management of suspected chorioamnionitis.


Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is an underestimated problem in labor and delivery units and remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Managing PPH starts with immediate recognition and intervention. Goal-directed massive transfusion protocol can be achieved by properly monitoring the maternal coagulation profile during severe obstetric hemorrhage. Conventional coagulation tests (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, fibrinogen analysis, platelet count) have long turnaround times (occasionally >60 min and provide little information about the in vivo condition of hemostasis) compared to viscoelastic tests (VETs) (available results within 10–30 min). The outcome in actively hemorrhaging patients can be optimized by VETs, including thromboelastography (TEG), rotational thromboelastometry and Sonoclot, providing more individualized blood component therapy compared to traditional 1:1:1 ‘damage control resuscitation’ ratios of blood transfusion strategy. The main limitations of the efficacy of VETs include, but are not limited to, the lack of validation, not having well-established reference ranges for each patient group, results affected by fluid resuscitation regimes and consistent operator proficiency. Although there is limited data with the use of VETs in obstetric patients, the value of VETs is supported by guidelines with increasing evidence. This article will demonstrate two obstetric cases to evaluate the reliability of the TEG in the management of postpartum coagulopathies. The lesson we took from our two cases is presented.