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  • Author: Michail L. Kotin x
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The paper deals with selected problems of the verbalization of the concepts “place”, “space” and “direction”, with a special consideration of their successive development in language and in language acquisition. The theoretical background are assumptions concerning the genesis of the concept of place and movement. Some of them claim that movement and direction precede the conceptualization of place and space. However, numerous linguistic phenomena seem to prove the opposite hypothesis, namely that the concept of place and, thus, its verbalization by means of stative verbs, local adverbs and prepositional phrases is original, whereas the concepts of movement, especially of controlled, caused movement denoted by transitive, regular verbs is derived from the concept of locum encoded by irregular verbs.


The paper deals with selected problems of the so-called if-so-clauses from the synchronic, diachronic, and typological perspectives. The syntactic constructions in question encode conditional relations of various types and demonstrate numerous cross-categorial features, primarily in the fields of modality, temporality and verbal aspect. The article presents the interaction of these categorical features in selected old and contemporary Germanic and Slavonic languages (Gothic, Old High German, Middle High German, New High German, Modern English, Russian and Polish), as well as in Latin and Classical Greek, chosen on the basis of typologically or/and genetically relevant criteria. In the sphere of modality-temporality interfaces, languages with and without a formally indicated indirect modality in the protasis are confronted; while in the sphere of aspect-modality convergence, languages with and without overt aspect markers are the main subject of the analysis. Another discussed problem is an analysis of various types of the connection between the protasis and the apodosis and a diachronic explanation of their – as a rule temporal – origins reanalyzed as conditional markers.