Numerical simulations of cyclones with various vortex finder dimensions and inlet section angles were performed to study the gas shortcut flow rate. The numerical solutions were carried out using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.1. A prediction model of the gas shortcut flow rate was obtained based on response surface methodology by means of the statistical software program (Minitab V14). The results show that the length of the vortex finder insertion, the vortex finder diameter and the inlet section angle play an important role in influencing the gas shortcut flow rate. The gas shortcut flow rate decreases when increasing the inlet section angle, and increases when increasing the vortex finder diameter and decreasing the length of the vortex finder insertion. Compared with the effect of the length of the vortex finder insertion on the shortcut flow rate, the effect of the vortex finder diameter on the gas shortcut flow rate seems more pronounced. The effect of the vortex finder dimension on the gas shortcut flow rate is changed with the different inlet section angles, i.e., the effects of the vortex finder dimension of the conventional cyclone (the inlet section angle is 0º) on the gas shortcut flow rate is stronger than the cyclone with 30º and 45º inlet section angles.
Steady-state tracer gas measurements were carried out to study the gas mixing behaviors in a spout-fluid bed with a cross section of 0.3 m x 0.03 m and height of 2 m. Two different tracer gases were simultaneously injected, one was injected into the spouting gas flow and the other was injected into the fluidizing gas flow. Radial tracer gas concentrations at various bed elevations under different flow patterns were measured. The mechanism of gas mixing was discussed based on the racer gas concentrations and the flow patterns recorded by a high-resolution digital CCD camera. It was found that gas mixing in spout-fluid beds was due to both convection and dispersion. A three-region mixing model was developed to describe the gas mixing in the spout-fluid bed. The spout jet region and the boundary region were modeled with a mass transfer model; the annular region was modeled with a dispersion model. Effects of spouting gas and fluidizing gas flow rate on the gas exchange between the spout jet and the annular dense region, and the gas dispersion in the annular dense region were examined with flow patterns. The results showed that increase in spouting gas velocity and fluidizing gas flow rate could both promote the gas mixing in spout-fluid beds. The gas-solid flow pattern transited from internal jet to spouting to spout-fluidizing, and the gases were better mixed. But the gases became poorly mixed when the flow pattern transited from stable flow to instable flow.
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) graft copolymers were synthesized via seeded emulsion polymerization techniques by grafting styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) on polybutadiene (PB) particles. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN)/ABS blends were prepared by melt blending ABS graft copolymers with PMMA and SAN resins. The properties, morphology and grafted chains behaviors of PMMA/SAN/ABS blends were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the ratio of PMMA/SAN, the toughness of PMMA/SAN/ABS blends slightly decreased, the transmittance first increased and then decreased, and tensile strength was not dependent on the ratio of PMMA/SAN. The evolution of impact strength of the blends was similar with the tendency of grafted degree (GD) with the increase of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and tert-dodecyl mercaptan (TDDM). From transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that ABS graft copolymers were uniformly dispersed in PMMA/SAN matrix.
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) grafted copolymer prepared by emulsion polymerization was used to modify different molecular weight poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) resins. The effects of the molecular weight of the PVC resins on dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) of PVC/ABS blends and matrix plasticizing behavior on the impact mechanical properties and the morphology were investigated. The tan δ peaks of PVC/ABS blends occurred at the same temperature obtained by DMA, indicating that miscibility of PVC/ABS blends was independent of the molecular weight of PVC. The notched Izod impact test results indicated that the amount of polybutadiene (PB) rubber needed for the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) increases together with the molecular weight of PVC when milled at 165°C. Increasing the operation temperature and adding the plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) could change the matrix plasticizing extent and the BDT. At a milling temperature of 165°C, the BDT was reached only with 3.6 wt% PB when DOP was added, in contrast to the addition of 7.2 wt% PB in the absence of DOP. The morphology of different plasticized degree of PVC/ABS blends was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing that the PVC-1/ABS blends milled at 165°C showed a larger unstained area than the other series of PVC blends.
It’s often the case that the supplier will provide the retailer with a permissible delay period in payments, during which the supplier charges the retailer no interest and the retailer accumulates interest earned from investment return. As a type of price reduction and an alternative to price discount, trade credit helps the supplier encourage the retailer’s ordering. This paper develops an inventory replenishment model for a deteriorating item with time-varying demand and shortages, taking account of trade credit and time value of money under inflation over a finite time horizon. This model is an extension and development of the existing studies related to the inventory system considering trade credit and time value of money and offers a more general model with more flexibility and resilience to handle the situation where demand of the end market is non-decreasing with regard to time.
A high-flux circulating fluidized bed coal gasifier cold model which consists of a vertical riser (0.06m-I.D.×5m-high), two downcomers (0.04m-I.D.×3.5m-high and 0.1m-I.D.×3m-high), an inertial separator, a cyclone and two solid feeding devices were established. Geldart group B particles with mean diameters of 140 ?m and densities of 2700 kg/m3 were used as bed materials. Flow behaviors were investigated with the solid mass flux ranges from 108 to 395 kg/m2 and the superficial gas velocity ranges from 7.6 to 10.2 m/s. The pressure drop, apparent solids holdups, average slip velocity and solids-to-air mass flow ratio under different operating conditions were obtained. The results showed that the riser total pressure drop increased sharply with bed height in the low elevation but slowly in the high elevation, since the solids holdup was higher in the low region than that in the high region. The solids holdup increased with the increasing of solids mass flux while it decreased with increasing superficial gas velocity. A dense suspension upflow flow (DSU) structure was found only existing in the low elevation while the rest upper region was still in the dilute phase, and the length of DSU flow structure increased with solids mass flux. The average slip velocity was found to be the strong function of apparent solids holdup; increasing apparent solids holdup leads to the increase of slip velocity. The riser total pressure drop and apparent solids holdup increase with the solids-to-air mass flow ratio.
Middle molecular weight epoxy resin was used to modify the properties of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and glycidyl methacrylate-functionalized acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS-g- GMA) blends. Rheological tests showed that the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PBT increased with the addition of epoxy resin due to the chemical reactions. PBT displayed non- Newtanian fluid behaviour when epoxy resin content was 10wt% or higher. SEM results showed there was no obvious difference between the morphology of PBT/ABS-g-GMA blends when epoxy resin content was low, however, agglomeration of ABS phase took place when epoxy resin content was 10wt% or higher due to the complicated reactions. DSC results showed that the addition of epoxy resin to PBT/ABS-g-GMA blends improved the compatibility according to Tm depression criterion and DMA test further testified the improved compatibility. Mechanical tests showed impact strength of 902J/m and yield strength of 42MPa was achieved when 20wt% ABS-g-GMA and 5wt% epoxy resin were used, which displayed supper-toughness and much stiffer properties.
The spout-fluid bed (SFB) is a very successful synthesis of the spouting and fluidization. The hydrodynamics of SFB are more complex than both fluidized beds and spouted beds. Up-to-date information on the fundamentals and applications of SFBs has been briefly presented, based on the limited work reported, in the new spouted bed book edited by Norman Epstein and John R. Grace (Spouted and spout-fluid beds: fundamentals and applications, 2011). In the past three years, nearly 30 papers have been published in international journals. They reported interesting studies on hydrodynamic characteristics, numerical simulations and new applications of SFBs. This article reviews the major research and development on SFB from the year 2010 and recommends further research topics. This review is intended not only as an important supplement to the SFB chapter of the spouted bed book but also helpful guidance for future research.