Photokinetic experiments show that the dechlorination reaction of dichlorobenzenes, chloroanilins, and chlorophenols is dependent on nature of solvent, but undependent on oxygen. Quantum yields determined in n-hexane indicate that there is a strong deviation within the ortho, meta, and para products.
The use of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solutions in patients requiring blood transfusion will necessitate that clinical laboratories have mechanisms in place to evaluate the potential interference effect of these substances on testing methods. Because these oxygen carrier solutions contain acellular hemoglobin, but do not contain many of the intracellular enzymes and ions present in erythrocytes, interference effects from blood substitutes may be quite different when compared to in vivo or in vitro lysis of erythrocytes. We evaluated the potential interference effect of Diaspirin Cross-linked Hemoglobin on 29 different clinical laboratory analytes. Various combinations of these analytes were tested using the Hitachi 747 and 911 systems, a Beckman CX3, an Abbott AxSym, a Bayer Immuno I, and a Dade ACA IV; a total of 60 analyte/instrument combinations. We used the method of multiple regression analysis to classify interferences as analyte-dependent, analyte-independent, or a combination of the first two types. The presence of clinically significant test interference was derived by using the criteria for maximum allowable error specified in the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. Using these criteria, we found significant interference from Diaspirin Cross-linked Hemoglobin with 13 of 29 analytes tested. Interference was noted with the Hitachi 747 and 911 methods for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total and conjugated bilirubin, cholesterol, total carbon dioxide, iron, lactate dehydrogenase, magnesium, total protein, and triglyceride. In addition, Diaspirin Cross-linked Hemoglobin interfered with measurement of L-lactate using the ACA IV and minor interference was noted with glucose measured using the Beckman CX3. Data from the interference studies was graphically displayed in the form of interference plots. These plots show the maximum allowable test error, due to Diaspirin Cross-linked Hemoglobin, as a function of analyte and interferent concentrations. Evaluation of the potential interference effect of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solutions with use of multiple regression analysis and graphical display of the resultant data in the form of interference plots allows for more reliable reporting of test results from specimens containing these products.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE images and Opportunity rover observations of the ~22 km wide Noachian age Endeavour Crater on Mars show that the rim and surrounding terrains were densely fractured during the impact crater-forming event. Fractures have also propagated upward into the overlying Burns formation sandstones. Opportunity’s observations show that the western crater rim segment, called Murray Ridge, is composed of impact breccias with basaltic compositions, as well as occasional fracture-filling calcium sulfate veins. Cook Haven, a gentle depression on Murray Ridge, and the site where Opportunity spent its sixth winter, exposes highly fractured, recessive outcrops that have relatively high concentrations of S and Cl, consistent with modest aqueous alteration. Opportunity’s rover wheels serendipitously excavated and overturned several small rocks from a Cook Haven fracture zone. Extensive measurement campaigns were conducted on two of them: Pinnacle Island and Stuart Island. These rocks have the highest concentrations of Mn and S measured to date by Opportunity and occur as a relatively bright sulfate-rich coating on basaltic rock, capped by a thin deposit of one or more dark Mn oxide phases intermixed with sulfate minerals. We infer from these unique Pinnacle Island and Stuart Island rock measurements that subsurface precipitation of sulfate-dominated coatings was followed by an interval of partial dissolution and reaction with one or more strong oxidants (e.g., O2) to produce the Mn oxide mineral(s) intermixed with sulfate-rich salt coatings. In contrast to arid regions on Earth, where Mn oxides are widely incorporated into coatings on surface rocks, our results demonstrate that on Mars the most likely place to deposit and preserve Mn oxides was in fracture zones where migrating fluids intersected surface oxidants, forming precipitates shielded from subsequent physical erosion.