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The Unpublished Essays of Edward T. Cone

This study was an initial examination of practice by Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists in their treatment of insomnia, anxiety and depression. Types of treatments provided and the nature of interactions with mental health professionals were explored. Sixty-nine participants (response rate approximately 9%) completed a questionnaire devised by the authors. A variety of natural medicine modalities were chosen to treat each condition, most frequently herbs, lifestyle advice and dietary modification. Evidence was found for some degree of consistency in the treatment approaches taken to mental health issues, suggestive of common practice approaches amongst suitably qualified practitioners. Findings also indicate considerable interaction between naturopaths/herbalists and mental health professionals, with more referrals made to mental health professionals than received. These findings may inform the better integration of natural medicine and mainstream mental health care in Australia.


In netball, analysis of the movement of players and the ball across different court locations can provide information about trends otherwise hidden. This study aimed to develop a method to discover latent passing patterns in women’s netball. Data for both pass location and playing position were collected from centre passes during selected games in the 2016 Trans-Tasman Netball Championship season and 2017 Australian National Netball League. A motif analysis was used to characterise passing-sequence observations. This revealed that the most frequent, sequential passing style from a centre pass was the “ABCD” motif in an alphabetical system, or in a positional system “Centre–Goal Attack–Wing Attack–Goal Shooter” and rarely was the ball passed back to the player it was received from. An association rule mining was used to identify frequent ball movement sequences from a centre pass play. The most confident rule flowed down the right-hand side of the court, however seven of the ten most confident rules demonstrated a preference for ball movement down the left-hand side of the court. These results can offer objective insight into passing sequences, and potentially inform team strategy and tactics. This method can also be generalised to other invasion sports.

The Dufour glands of Leptothorax acervorum and L. nylanderi both contain species-specific mixtures of hydrocarbons, dominated by C17 hydrocarbons in L. acervorum and C15 hydrocarbons in L. nylanderi. Both species contain the sesquiterpenoid tetramorene-2. but neither contain (E)-β-farnesene, which has earlier been found in the glands of Harpagoxenus sublaevis which raids Leptothorax nests and enslaves its workers. The contents of the glands of workers and queens of L. acervorum were very similar.


The volatile components of the Dufour gland secretion of workers cf the ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis have been analysed by gas chrom atography and mass spectrometry. Over 20 com ponents have been identified, consisting of linear and terpenoid hydrocarbons. Each gland contains approximately 6 ng of hydrocarbons with n-heptadecene (40% ) and /n-heptadecadiene (30% ) as the major components. Two terpenoid hydrocarbons, (E)-β-farnesene and a homofarnesene isomer were also identified.


The morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland of a pseudomyrmecine ant is described. The gland has an unusually large volume but possesses a very thin epithelial lining. Its morphology does not constitute a specific subfamily character as in some ant subfamilies. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the glands of three species showed them all to be rich in saturated linear hydrocarbons (C17:0 and C15:0 dominant) and isopropyl esters of the common fatty acids. Each species produces its own characteristic mixture of these substances. The most abundant ester in Pseudomyrmex ferruginea is isopropyl oleate and in P. sp. A it is isopropyl palmitate, in P.flavicornis there is only a trace of isopropyl palmitate. An alate female of P. ferruginea contained a very similar mixture to that of the workers.


Background: Peripheral smear review is a critical, but labor intensive adjunct for evaluation of lymphocytosis. Standard practice based on consensus guidelines is to review cases with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) >5×109/L. We hypothesize that identifying cases for review by applying appropriately adjusted ALC and age discriminators will decrease laboratory workload without compromising patient care.

Methods: 1170 complete blood counts with ALCs >5×109/L analyzed in the core laboratory during a 2-year period were included. Patients were categorized into diagnostic groups based on follow-up criteria. A total of 402 patients with new onset lymphocytosis who met criteria for reactive lymphocytosis (82%) or lymphoproliferative disorder (18%) were used to establish optimal ALC and age thresholds from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: ALC as a discriminator for neoplastic lymphocytosis had an ROC area under the curve (AUC) of 0.732. Selecting cases with ALC >10×109/L enriched the proportion of neoplastic cases in the review pool (90% specificity); however, many cases with ALC below this threshold were also neoplastic (52% sensitivity). For cases with ALC between 5 and 10×109/L, age as a discriminator had an ROC AUC of 0.886. Selecting patients >50 years old in this group for review captured the neoplastic cases while excluding the reactive cases (93% sensitivity, 62% specificity). When applied to a validation cohort, the predictive performance of the thresholds was maintained while reducing smears reviewed by 50%.

Conclusions: We show that modifying the standard 5×109/L ALC smear review threshold through retrospective analysis of institutional data can reduce laboratory workload without compromising quality.