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  • Author: Paul Sömmer x
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Internationales Jahrbuch für die Nietzsche-Forschung

Cainism, nestling management in Germany in 2004-2007 and satellite tracking of juveniles in the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina)

The Lesser Spotted Eagle belongs to a species with obligatory cainism, which means that in the natural state it is rare that two young eagles fledge, although as a rule two chick's hatch. The breeding population in Germany is at the western edge of the species' range and is declining (a 23% decrease between 1993 and 2007). Local extinction can be anticipated and therefore nestling management has been implemented in the German federal state of Brandenburg since 2004 as a conservation measure by using human intervention to prevent the death of the younger sibling. This is in addition to other methods such as nest-site protection, habitat preservation, legislation etc. Furthermore, in 2007, second hatched eagle chicks (Abels) from Latvia were translocated for the first time. The managed pairs (nests physically inspected) were on average more successful than the unmanaged pairs (nests not physically inspected). It cannot be determined as to whether the inspection of the nests had a negative effect on breeding. Breeding success of the pairs present in Brandenburg, including non-breeders, increased by 57 % in 2007 due to nestling management, and that of the managed pairs alone by 67 %. In 2007 the behaviour of six young eagles was studied using satellite telemetry. This study determined that the Abels migrated as well as the first hatched eagle chicks (Cains), and that their survival chances were equally good. The Abels imported from Latvia migrated in two out of three cases along the same route as the German Lesser Spotted Eagles to the Bosporus. One Latvian Abel which fledged in Germany was tracked by satellite to Zambia where many Lesser Spotted Eagles winter. A German Abel wintered North of the Equator in the Sudan and neighbouring countries for over six months and started its return migration on 27 April 2008.


Urinary tract infections require costly confirmatory tests such as a urine culture to establish the diagnosis. Elimination of the culture step would save resources; diagnosis and treatment could begin in hours rather than days. We tested a new dip-and-read strip that uses immuno-chromatography (IC) to detect infectious agents in urine. We used a goat-derived polyclonal antibody with reactivity to the cell-wall proteins of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Fluorescein linked to the anti-E. coli antibody served to trap the bacteria on a strip coated with an anti-fluorescein mouse antibody. Blue latex particles were linked to anti-E. coli antibodies by standard methods and were used for detection of E. coli. We found that the combination of leukocyte esterase and nitrite dipsticks gave negative predictive values of 93% for culture-negative urines, i.e., there were very few false-negative results. Using the same dipsticks on culture-positive specimens, the positive predictive values were unacceptably low; we obtained too many false-positive values. By contrast, the IC strips gave negative predictive values of 89%. The major advantage of the IC strips is that the positive predictive values were higher, i.e., there were fewer false-positive results. The combined use of both IC strips and urinalysis dipsticks offers the best strategy for diagnosing infection with dipsticks. The IC strip test could reduce the necessity of a urine culture in patients with suspected infections and provide rapid point-of-care testing.