Multi-infusion therapy, in which multiple pumps are connected to one access point, is frequently used in patient treatments. This practice is known to cause dosing errors following setpoint changes in the drug concentrations that actually enter the patients. Within the Metrology for Drug Delivery Project, we analyzed and quantified the two main physical phenomena leading to these errors: the “push-out” effect and the system mechanical compliance. We compared the dosing errors of a three-pump system with two infusion sets, both with and without anti-reflux valves, using in vitro spectrophotometric experiments. Additionally, computer simulations were used to study the compliance effect separately. We found a start-up time of more than 1 h, and a dosing error following a setpoint increase of another pump for the low flow rate pump, corresponding to 0.5 μg noradrenaline delivered in 8 min. We showed that the dead volume inside the tubes and syringe compliance produce opposite deviations from the setpoint values in the actual drug output concentrations, making the net result hard to predict and often counterintuitive. We conclude that metrology on compliance and push-out effects could be used by infusion device manufacturers to successfully improve drug delivery performance and relevant standards for high-risk multi-infusion applications.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship
between the kinetic patterns of the protein S-100β an
astroglial cell marker, and its immunohistochemical
expression in the brain in rabbits that underwent cardiopulmonary
bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory
Fourteen New Zealand rabbits (weight, 3.1±0.25 kg)
were anaesthetised, intubated and mechanically ventilated.
Four animals were not connected to the cardiopulmonary
bypass and served as controls. Ten animals
were perfused according to a uniform protocol.
After systemic cooling, deep hypothermic circulatory
arrest was induced for 60 minutes. After reperfusion
and rewarming, the animals were weaned from bypass
and sacrificed. In the brain, astrocyte reactivity
for S-100β was evaluated immunocytochemically
(DPC® Immustain) and the serum concentrations of S-100β were analysed using a commercially available
immunoluminometric kit (Byk-Sangtec®, Dietzenbach,
In all experimental animals a significant increase of
the serum concentration of the protein S-100β was
found immediately after reperfusion and the termination
of cardiopulmonary bypass. In comparison with
the control animals, increased staining of S-100β was
found in the astroglial cells and swollen astrocytic
end-feet in the perivascular regions. There were fewer
signs of neuronal cell injury of neurones in the hippocampus
In conclusion, astrocytic activation and S-100β over-expression
seems to precede the neurodegeneration
following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The
marked perivascular cell swelling may support the assumption
of reperfusion injury of the astroglial cell
complex that forms the blood-brain barrier, which may
be indicative of the source of the released S-100β into
the blood stream.
Fifteen pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from the Red Sea marine sponge Stylissa carteri and investigated for their biological activities. Four of them were dibrominated [(+) dibromophakelline, Z-3-bromohymenialdisine, (±) ageliferin and 3,4-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carbamide], nine compounds were monobrominated [(−) clathramide C, agelongine, (+) manzacidin A, (−) 3-bromomanzacidin D, Z-spongiacidin D, Z-hymenialdisine, 2-debromostevensine, 2-bromoaldisine and 4-bromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carbamide)] and finally, two compounds were non-brominated derivatives viz., E-debromohymenialdisine and aldisine. The structure elucidations of isolated compounds were based on 1D & 2D NMR spectroscopic and MS studies, as well as by comparison with literature. In-vitro, Z-spongiacidin D exhibited a moderate activity on (ARK5, CDK2-CycA, CDK4/CycD1, VEGF-R2, SAK and PDGFR-beta) protein kinases. Moreover, Z-3-bromohymenialdisine showed nearly similar pattern. Furthermore, Z-hymenialdisine displayed a moderate effect on (ARK5 & VEGF-R2) and (−) clathramide C showed a moderate activity on AURORA-A protein kinases. While, agelongine, (+) manzacidin A, E-debromohymenialdisine and 3,4-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carbamide demonstrated only marginal inhibitory activities. The cytotoxicity study was evaluated in two different cell lines. The most effective secondary metabolites were (+) dibromophakelline and Z-3-bromohymenialdisine on L5178Y. Finally, Z-hymenialdisine, Z-3-bromohymenialdisine and (±) ageliferin exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity on HCT116. No report about inhibition of AURORA-A and B by hymenialdisine/hymenialdisine analogs existed and no reported toxicity of ageliferin existed in literature.
Intracortical microprobes allow the precise monitoring of electrical and chemical signaling and are widely used in neuroscience. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies have greatly enhanced the integration of multifunctional probes by facilitating the combination of multiple recording electrodes and drug delivery channels in a single probe. Depending on the neuroscientific application, various assembly strategies are required in addition to the microprobe fabrication itself. This paper summarizes recent advances in the fabrication and assembly of micromachined silicon probes for drug delivery achieved within the EU-funded research project NeuroProbes. The described fabrication process combines a two-wafer silicon bonding process with deep reactive ion etching, wafer grinding, and thin film patterning and offers a maximum in design flexibility. By applying this process, three general comb-like microprobe designs featuring up to four 8-mm-long shafts, cross sections from 150×200 to 250×250 µm², and different electrode and fluidic channel configurations are realized. Furthermore, we discuss the development and application of different probe assemblies for acute, semichronic, and chronic applications, including comb and array assemblies, floating microprobe arrays, as well as the complete drug delivery system NeuroMedicator for small animal research.
The field of clinical proteomics offers opportunities to identify new disease biomarkers in body fluids, cells and tissues. These biomarkers can be used in clinical applications for diagnosis, stratification of patients for specific treatment, or therapy monitoring. New protein array formats and improved spectrometry technologies have brought these analyses to a level with potential for use in clinical diagnostics. The nature of the human body fluid proteome with its large dynamic range of protein concentrations presents problems with quantitation. The extreme complexity of the proteome in body fluids presents enormous challenges and requires the establishment of standard operating procedures for handling of specimens, increasing sensitivity for detection and bioinformatical tools for distribution of proteomic data into the public domain. From studies of in vitro diagnostics, especially in clinical chemistry, it is evident that most errors occur in the preanalytical phase and during implementation of the diagnostic strategy. This is also true for clinical proteomics, and especially for fluid proteomics because of the multiple pretreatment processes. These processes include depletion of high-abundance proteins from plasma or enrichment processes for urine where biological variation or differences in proteolytic activities in the sample along with preanalytical variables such as inter- and intra-assay variability will likely influence the results of proteomics studies. However, before proteomic analysis can be introduced at a broader level into the clinical setting, standardization of the preanalytical phase including patient preparation, sample collection, sample preparation, sample storage, measurement and data analysis needs to be improved. In this review, we discuss the recent technological advances and applications that fulfil the criteria for clinical proteomics, with the focus on fluid proteomics. These advances relate to preanalytical factors, analytical standardization and quality-control measures required for effective implementation into routine laboratory testing in order to generate clinically useful information. With new disease biomarker candidates, it will be crucial to design and perform clinical studies that can identify novel diagnostic strategies based on these techniques, and to validate their impact on clinical decision-making.
The concept that disease rooted principally in chronic aberrant constitutive and reactive activation of mast cells (MCs), without the gross MC neoplasia in mastocytosis, first emerged in the 1980s, but only in the last decade has recognition of “mast cell activation syndrome” (MCAS) grown significantly. Two principal proposals for diagnostic criteria have emerged. One, originally published in 2012, is labeled by its authors as a “consensus” (re-termed here as “consensus-1”). Another sizable contingent of investigators and practitioners favor a different approach (originally published in 2011, newly termed here as “consensus-2”), resembling “consensus-1” in some respects but differing in others, leading to substantial differences between these proposals in the numbers of patients qualifying for diagnosis (and thus treatment). Overdiagnosis by “consensus-2” criteria has potential to be problematic, but underdiagnosis by “consensus-1” criteria seems the far larger problem given (1) increasing appreciation that MCAS is prevalent (up to 17% of the general population), and (2) most MCAS patients, regardless of illness duration prior to diagnosis, can eventually identify treatment yielding sustained improvement. We analyze these proposals (and others) and suggest that, until careful research provides more definitive answers, diagnosis by either proposal is valid, reasonable, and helpful.