The systemic differences between German and Spanish verb forms, and their values and uses, often pose a problem in translation. This is the case of the interpretation of temporal meaning in the German Präteritum (in literary texts) for a correct selection of tense in Spanish. The contrastive study of temporal expression in the German Präteritum and the possible Spanish equivalents of pretérito perfect simple (simple past) and pretérito imperfecto (imperfect) reveal the need to study temporality from two perspectives: tenses as time expressions together with other textual elements, and tenses as morphosyntactic and semantic phenomena in the sentence.
As is widely known, when translators immerse themselves in new specialized fields they need to acquire knowledge of the topic and textual structure, without which it would be virtually impossible to interpret the source text (ST) meaning correctly. This is why we believe that developing quick and efficient acquisition of new knowledge must be a priority of translator training. In what follows, we present a case study method applied to German-language Ehevertrag, i.e. prenuptial agreements, which are a very specific type of notarial document. The method is applied in four phases. During the first phase, an initial diagnosis of pre-existing knowledge is conducted, leading to a second stage of case description and examination of all possibilities and/or alternatives available for systematic documentation. Once all available new information has been selected and prioritized in what comprises the third stage of our method, possible conclusions are drawn and applied not only to the task of interpreting the ST but also to the fourth-stage task of planning strategies and techniques for translating the ST.
Total protein, albumin, α1-microglobulin, and immunoglobulin
G (IgG) were analyzed in 1622 urine samples
without Bence-Jones proteinuria or gross hematuria.
There was correlation with the histological picture obtained
on renal biopsy in 61 patients. We established
24-h reference intervals for α1-microglobulin and IgG
on 659 urine samples with total protein and albumin
excretion rates below 100 mg/24 h and 30 mg/24 h, respectively,
and creatinine clearance above 80 ml/min.
The central 95% reference interval was found to be between
4 and 17 mg/24 h for α1-microglobulin and between
3 and 8.5 mg/24 h for IgG. In 80 urine samples
with albumin excretion rate above 30 mg/24 h and
α1-microglobulin and IgG within their reference intervals,
we analyzed the 95% central interval of the distribution
of the IgG/albumin ratios, and it was found to
be within 0.01 and 0.20 (0.90 confidence interval:
0.17–0.24). Proteinuria was considered to be of the selective
glomerular type if the albumin excretion rate
was abnormal and the IgG/albumin ratio was under
0.20, even when the IgG excretion was within a pathological
range. For the classification of proteinuria as
predominantly tubular, we estimated the α1-microglobulin/albumin ratio in 173 urine samples with normal
excretion rates of albumin and IgG and pathological
excretion of α1-microglobulin. The discriminating value
of 0.91 (0.90 confidence interval: 0.78–1.08) was accepted
in order to define proteinuria of a tubular origin
in the presence of a pathological albumin excretion
rate. The association between albumin and IgG excretion
rates and tubular reabsorption of the α1-microglobulin
normally filtered by the glomerulus was studied
in 33 urine samples from patients with no
histologically significant tubulo-interstitial or vascular
disease and a serum creatinine concentration below
141 μmol/l. The optimal curve-fitting function between
albumin plus IgG and α1-microglobulin excretion
rates was of the quadratic type (r=0.927). Mixed
proteinuria was considered when both, albumin and
α1-microglobulin excretion rates were pathological
and could not be included in the previously described
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Natural products are considered as therapeutically useful antioxidant agents against reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have evaluated the antioxidant and protective potential of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole and α-pinene against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells. Pretreatment with these monoterpenes was found to attenuate the loss of cell viability and the changes in cell morphology. Moreover, they inhibited the intracellular ROS production and markedly enhanced the expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1). In addition, they were able to decrease apoptosis as is evident from reduced capase-3 activity. The mechanisms of their antioxidant action appear to involve ROS scavenging and induction of the nuclear Nrf2 factor. This study demonstrates the potential beneficial therapeutic effect of these common monoterpenes on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in diseases of the nervous system.
In order to effectively process and utilize surplus bananas and those without the quality for export, in this research it is proposed to microencapsulate the banana juice by means of spray drying and using maltodextrin as the covering material. Three cultivars Enano gigante (Musa AAA, subgroup Cavendish), and the tetraploids hybrids (AAAA), FHIA-17 and FHIA-23 were selected for this research. Being Enano gigante, the cultivar shows the highest glass transition temperature. The drying parameters were established, depending upon the ratio of juice/maltodextrin and the drying air temperature. The optimal drying air temperature was 220°C for the three cultivars with a 20% juice/maltodextrin ratio for both the Enano Gigante and the FHIA-23, while in the FHIA-17 there were no significant differences between the juice/maltodextrin ratios. The morphology and size distribution of the microcapsules were observed by a scanning electron microscopy. The number of particles is directly proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the juice/maltodextrin ratio. A Weibull particle size distribution was common to all treatments. There is a correlation between the principal components and clustering analyses with the optimization of the system. The principal components analysis considers three Weibull parameters (obtained from the particle size distribution) and the powders moisture percentage.