In der vergleichenden Wohlfahrtsstaatenforschung wird vermehrt auf den Einfluss religiöser Überzeugungen verwiesen. Als Vermittler religiöser Ideen gelten vor allem politische Parteien. Anhand einer prozessanalytischen Rekonstruktion der Entstehung der niederländischen Arbeitslosenversicherung zeigt dieser Artikel, dass der Faktor Religion nicht nur durch die politischen Parteien, sondern auch durch das Verbändesystem und die industriellen Beziehungen auf die Ausformung von Sozialpolitik wirkt.
This study of the reform of the German Bourse Law in 1908 argues that the “self-undermining negative policy feedback effects” of the initial Bourse Law of 1896 on the market for Imperial and state bonds explain why exchange regulation was liberalized although the dominant political forces, the Conservatives and the Clericals, were opposed to bourses and capital markets. Based on an original assessment of primary documents, the study uses the method of explaining-outcome process tracing to show that the initial Bourse Law caused losses to the Imperial government and the large banks; this induced both actors to remove the prohibition of speculation. Because the German Empire can be viewed as a kind of laboratory for (first) treatment effects on financial market regulation of the sovereign debt market, this study contains lessons for understanding the relationship between states and financial markets in general.
This article argues that tiro core domains of the German coordinated market economy have undergone transformative institutional change: the welfare stale and the vocational training system. We argue that this process is best described as a process of liberalization resulting from the exhaustion of traditional institutions. Exhaustion describes a mechanism of institutional change in which endogenous negative feedback effects, caused by the over extension of resources, lead to a transformation of the formerly symmetrical and consensual relationship between the state, employers and unions into an asymmetrical and conflictual one. The article contributes to the analysis of institutional change and applies the comparative method of the “parallel demonstration of theory”.