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  • Author: Qian-Feng Zhang x
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The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and to assess the association between smoking patterns and OA prevalence in adults aged 50 years or older belonging to the Shanxi province of China.


A cross-sectional study in the rural regions of the Shanxi province was conducted among 2638 Chinese adults (aged ≥50 years). Demographic characteristics and behavioral information were collected through epidemiological surveys. All participants with joint pain underwent plain radiographic examination and were diagnosed by a professional orthopedist. Associations between smoking patterns and the prevalence of OA were assessed using binary logistic regression modeling.


Among 2638 individuals (men, 50.3% and women, 49.7%; mean age, 61.5 years) included in the analysis, 49.8% had radiographic OA and 27.5% had knee OA. The prevalence of radiographic OA was higher in women than in men (P<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, there was a nonsignificant correlation between smoking and OA prevalence in the multivariate model. Odds ratios (ORs) for all types of OA and knee OA were higher in active and passive smokers than in nonsmoking individuals after adjustments (OR 1.374; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.049–1.802; OR 1.440; 95% CI 1.059–1.958, respectively).


This study showed that smoking may not be an independent risk factor for OA; however, there was a positive correlation between active and passive smoking and OA.


A self-assembly reaction of Cd(NO3)2 · 4H2O, 3-ferrocenyl-5-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole (Hfcpp), [Ag(SePh)]n, and Et3N in a mixed acetone-water solvent resulted in the formation of a heterometallic complex [Cd2{Ag(SePh)}2 (μ 3-OH2)2(μ 2,η 3-fcpp)4] · 2C3H6O (1) with a phenylselenolate ligand. The two cadmium and two silver centers are linked by four [μ 2,η 3-fcpp] ligands and two μ 3-OH2 water molecules. Each Cd atom is in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination environment, while each Ag atom shows a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry, which is composed of two pyrazolyl nitrogen atoms, one selenium atom, and one oxygen atom.


Interaction of AgCl with bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) in THF/MeCN in the presence of K[PF6] or [Et4N]Br afforded typical trinuclear cationic trigonal-bipyramidal complexes [Ag3(μ 3-Cl)2(μ-dppm)3][PF6] (1) or [Ag3(μ 3-Br)2(μ-dppm)3][AgBr2] (2), respectively. Treatment of AgBr with bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) in THF/MeCN in the presence of [Et4N]Br gave a polymeric complex {[Et4N][Ag2(μ-Br)3(μ-dppe)]}n (3) with a dinuclear {Ag2(μ-Br)3} core. The reaction of AgCl with dppe or bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp) in THF/MeCN in the presence of [Et4N]Cl resulted in the isolation of a dinuclear anionic complex [Et4N]2[(AgCl2)2(μ-dppe)] (4) with one μ-dppe bridge or a dinuclear neutral complex [(AgCl)2(μ-dppp)2] (5) with two μ-dppp bridges and a 12-membered ring, respectively. The structures of complexes 1–5 with the bidentate phosphine ligands were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

Treatment of copper(I) chloride in the presence of the bidentate phosphine ligand Ph2PCH2CH2- PPh2 (dppe) with Se(SiMe3)2 and PhSeSiMe3 in THF solution afforded a novel polynuclear mixedvalence copper-selenide cluster compound [CuI 36(CuIICl)2Se13(SePh)12(dppe)6] · 3EtOH. A central μ8-Se atom is surrounded by 14 copper atoms, 2 of which are trigonal-bipyramidally coordinated with terminal Cu-Cl bonds and are thus defined to be copper(II) centers. The 14 copper atoms are also enclosed by another distorted Se12 icosahedron to form a [Se13Cu14] central unit in the cluster. The cluster unit core is further extended to the periphery by coordination of the Se12 substructure to another 24 copper atoms, 12 of which are ligated by the six dppe ligands.

Two new selenogallates, [bappH2][Ga2Se4] (1) (bapp = 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine) and [Mn(en)3][Ga2Se5] (2) (en = ethylenediamine), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 contain one-dimensional polymeric chains {[Ga2Se4]2−}∞ and {[Ga2Se5]2−}∞, respectively. The negative charges of the polymeric chains are balanced by a protonated 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine cation in 1 and by the metal-amine complex cations [Mn(en)3]2+ in 2. TGA analyses have shown that compound 2 is thermally more stable than compound 1.


Reactions of [(η6-C6Me6)RuCl2]2 and [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl2]2 with [Hg(ptpy)2] (Hptpy = 2-pyridyl-m-toluene) in THF afforded [{(η6-C6Me6)Ru(ptpy)}2(μ-Hg2Cl6)] 1 and [(η6-pcymene) Ru(ptpy)(HgCl3)] 2, respectively. The crystal structures of complexes 1 and 2 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The ruthenium atom in both molecules 1 and 2 adopts a pseudo octahedral configuration containing a cyclometalated ptpy ligand. The Ru−C(ptpy) and Ru−N bond lengths in 1 are 2.049(3) and 2.089(2) Å, respectively. The corresponding bond lengths for 2 are 2.025(9) and 2.089(7) Å .

Addition of anhydrous InCl3 to a THF solution of CuCl and dppe (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2), or CuCl and PPh3, resulted in the formation of the crystalline heterometallic copper(I)/indium(III) complexes [(dppeCu)2(μ-Cl)(μ-dppe)][InCl4]·THF (1·THF) and [{Cu(PPh3)2}2(μ-Cl)4(InCl)]·THF (2·THF), respectively, which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is composed of a dinuclear copper(I) complex cation and a mononuclear tetrahedral indium(III) complex anion. Complex 2 comprises an indium center in a quasi square-pyramidal chloride-coordination environment connected to two Cu(PPh)3 fragments via Cu(μ-Cl)2 In bridges


The reaction of [PPh4]2[WS4] in CH3CN with excess n-propylbromide or n-butylbromide gave alkylthiolatotrithiotungstate complexes, [PPh4][WS3(SR)] (1: R=n-propyl; 2: R=n-butyl). The analogous reaction with 1-bromomethyl-4-chloromethyl-benzene afforded a benzylthiolatotrithiotungstate complex, [PPh4][WS3(SCH2C6 H4CH2Cl-4)] (3), whereas the reaction with 1,4-bis-bromomethyl-benzene led to isolation of a dinuclear complex [PPh4]2[WS3(μ-SCH2C6H4CH2S)WS3] (4). Complexes 1–4 were characterized spectroscopically and the crystal structures of 1/2·½C6H6 and 3 have been determined by X-ray diffraction.


Condensation of 3,6-dichloropyridazine or 3,6-dichloro-4,5-dimethyl- pyridazine with 3-methyl-1H-pyrazole or 4-methyl-1H-pyrazole with the assistance of sodium metal in tetrahydrofuran at reflux afforded three 3,6-bis(pyrazolyl)- pyridazine-type ligands: 3,6-bis(3-methylpyrazolyl)pyridazine (L1), 3,6-bis(4-methyl- pyrazolyl)pyridazine (L2) and 4,5-dimethyl-3,6-bis(4-methylpyrazolyl)pyridazine (L3). Reactions of cis-[RuCl2(bpy)2] · 2H2O (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) and L1, L2 or L3 in the presence of NH4PF6 produced the heteroleptic cationic ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(L1)(bpy)2](PF6)2 (1), [Ru(L2)(bpy)2](PF6)2 (2) and [Ru(L3)(bpy)2](PF6)2 (3), respectively. The three complexes have been characterized by UV/Vis and luminescence spectroscopy. The crystal structures of 1 · EtOH, 2 · EtOH and 3 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.