Clinical reasoning is an essential feature of health care practice; it is also a crucial ability for providing patient care of high quality. It has been identified that graduate nurses may lack the clinical reasoning skills to deliver safe and effective patient care. It is therefore of paramount importance to enhance nursing students' clinical reasoning ability. High-fidelity simulation (HFS) is proved to be an effective teaching and learning method, which may also have some advantages over other teaching methods.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the related literature, illustrated the application of high-fidelity simulation teaching method in nursing education, putting the focus on the use of it in teaching with clinical reasoning.
The application of high-fidelity simulation to nursing education can simulate the clinical situation, thus to create a safe, continuous and efficient learning environment for students, and it can effectively improve students' clinical reasoning ability.
high-fidelity simulation is effective for clinical reasoning teaching in nursing education. The extension of its application in China should be of great value. The relevant further study is suggested focusing on how to overcome its own limitations and have it better applied in nursing education in China.
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae; syn. M. testulalis), is a serious pantropical insect pest of grain legumes. Comparative studies of M. vitrata female sex pheromone components in two different geographic populations in China, Wuhan and Huazhou, confi rmed that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10,E12 - 16:Ald) and (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10 - 16:Ald) were present in variable ratios in all pheromone gland extracts of both populations. (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol (E10,E12 - 16:OH) was always detected in minor amounts using polar DB-WAX columns, but was never detected using medium-polar DB-17 columns for the two populations. E10 - 16:OH was not found in any of the M. vitrata sex pheromone gland extracts. The average ratios of E10 - 16:Ald, E10,E12 - 16:Ald, and E10,E12 - 16:OH in the pheromone gland extracts of populations from Wuhan and Huazhou were 79.5:100:12.1 and 10.3:100:0.7, respectively. Electrophysiological testing suggested that E10,E12 - 16:Ald elicited the highest male electroantennography (EAG) response, followed by E10,E12 - 16:OH and E10 - 16:Ald. Field-trapping tests with single synthetic sex pheromone lures showed that E10,E12 - 16:OH alone could not attract males, whereas E10,E12 - 16:Ald or E10 - 16:Ald alone attracted few males. Wuhan and Huazhou males were most attracted by lures containing E10 - 16:Ald + E10,E12 - 16:Ald + E10,E12 - 16:OH in doses of (80 + 100 + 10) μg and (10 + 100 + 10) μg, respectively, per vial. Males could discriminate between the blends that were most attractive to their own geographic population and those that were most attractive to the reference population. Our fi ndings suggest that geographic variation exists in the sex pheromone system of M. vitrata in China. The results are discussed with regard to the mechanisms underlying the sex pheromone variation
In this paper, a dual-band circularly polarized stacked annular-ring microstrip antenna which covers the bands of Galileo (E5a, E5b, E1, E2, L1), GPS (L1, L2, L5) and GLONASS (L1, L2, L3) is presented. The antenna is composed of two concentric annular-ring patches that are etched on a substrate to generate a dual-band response. Four H-shaped apertures are added to improve the coupling between the microstrip lines and rings. And a wide-band feeding network is used to broaden the axial-ratio bandwidth. Good agreement is achieved between the simulation and measurement, which shows that the return loss of the proposed antenna is less than −15 dB in the whole band and the 3-dB axial-ratio (AR) bandwidths for the lower and upper band are 12.5% and 20.8% respectively. The measured results confirm the validity of the designed antenna which is suitable for Global Navigation Satellite System.
In this work, experiments and modeling for the interactions between uranyl ion and GMZ bentonite in the presence of fulvic acid are presented. The results demonstrated that FA is strongly bound to GMZ bentonite, and these molecules have a very large effect on the U(VI) sorption. The results also demonstrated that U(VI) sorption to GMZ bentonite in the presence and absence of sorbed FA can be well predicted by combining SHM and DLM. According to the model calculations, the nature of the interactions between FA with U(VI) at GMZ bentonite surface is mainly surface complex. The first attempt to simulate clay interaction with humus by the SHM model.
STGC3 is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene that was found to be associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) via the cDNA cloning and RACE processes. The biological function of the STGC3 protein and its expression level in nasopharyngeal carcinoma remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the STGC3 protein expression level in NPC and to investigate the inhibitory function of STGC3 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene. We assessed the expression of the STGC3 protein in NPC biopsies and normal control specimens via Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of STGC3 as induced by doxycycline (Dox) via a tetracycline (Tet)-regulated system in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 was also established, and the effect of STGC3 restoration on the biological behavior of CNE2 was observed. A reduced level of STGC3 expression (0.978 ± 0.213 versus 0.324 ± 0.185, P < 0.05) was detected in NPC versus normal nasopharyngeal tissue by Western blot assay. Immunohistochemical assays for STGC3 detected positive staining in the nuclei and cytoplasm of epithelial cells, and the positive expression rate in NPC, 8 of 21 (38%), was lower than that in normal nasopharynx samples, 16 of 22 (72%). After STGC3 expression was restored, the growth capacity and clone formation potential of CNE2 cells in soft agar were significantly suppressed, and the cell percentage in G0/G1 phase increased, while the percentage of cells entering the S and G2 phases decreased. This indicates that an abnormality in STGC3 expression is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis and that it may play an important role in controlling cell growth and regulating the cell cycle.