Purification of a soluble cytochrome c6 from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by a simple and rapid method is described. The purification procedure includes ammonium sulfate precipitation and non-denaturating PAGE. The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids was determined and shows 85% similarity and 75% identity to the sequence of cytochrome c6 from the green alga Monoraphidium braunii. The ferrocyto-chrome shows typical UV/VIS absorption peaks at 552.9, 521.9 and 415.7 nm. The apparent molecular mass was estimated to be 12 kD a by SDS-PAGE. EPR-spectroscopy at 20K shows resonances indicative for two distinct low-spin heme forms.
Organisms try to maintain homeostasis by balanced uptake of nutrients from their environment. From an atomic perspective this means that, for example, carbon:nitrogen:sulfur ratios are kept within given limits. Upon limitation of, for example, sulfur, its acquisition is triggered. For yeast it was shown that transporters and enzymes involved in sulfur up- take are encoded as paralogous genes that express different isoforms. Sulfur deprivation leads to up-regulation of isoforms that are poor in sulfur-containing amino acids, that is, methinone and cysteine. Accordingly, sulfur-rich isoforms are down-regulated.
We developed a web-based software, doped Nutrilyzer, that extracts paralogous protein coding sequences from an annotated genome sequence and evaluates their atomic compo- sition. When fed with gene-expression data for nutrient limited and normal conditions, Nutrilyzer provides a list of genes that are significantly differently expressed and simul- taneously contain significantly different amounts of the limited nutrient in their atomic composition. Its intended use is in the field of ecological stoichiometry. Nutrilyzer is available at http://nutrilyzer.hs-mittweida.de.
Here we describe the work flow and results with an example from a whole-genome Ara- bidopsis thaliana gene-expression analysis upon oxygen deprivation. 43 paralogs distributed over 37 homology clusters were found to be significantly differently expressed while containing significantly different amounts of oxygen.
Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.
With a set of features, extracted from each database hit in combination with user relevance preferences, a neural network predicts user specific relevance scores. Using expert knowledge as training data for a predefined neural network or using users own relevance training sets, a reliable relevance ranking of database hits has been implemented.
In this paper, we present the LAILAPS system, the concepts, benchmarks and use cases. LAILAPS is public available for SWISSPROT data at http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de