Incomplete influenza virus prepared by multiple infection of allantoic cells has been examined in the electron microscope by negative staining. Such virus differed from standard (fully infective) virus in being grossly pleomorphic, and included some filamentous forms. It resembled standard virus in having a similar outer layer, and in showing no spontaneous disruption of the particles. Preparations of reactivated virus were made by multiplicity reactivation of inocula of ultra-violet irradiated virus, and these had a generally similar appearance, including some very long filamentous forms.
At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between students with and without the nightmare triad syndrome (NTS+), the sleep disorders’ cluster of frequent nightmares, insomnia disorder and suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).
Data were gathered at a charter school for at-risk youth using: computer based surveys, physical airway exams, and mental health interviews by school social worker. Ninety-two students were enrolled, and 70 completed all study components.
Students were teenaged [17.10 (1.50) years], male (52.2%) slightly overweight [BMI 25.50 (6.41)] Hispanics (87.0%); two-thirds (65 of 92) subjectively reported a sleep problem. Frequent nightmares (39.1%), insomnia (ISI ≥ 12, 41.3%), and SDB risk (79.3%) were common. Several presumptive sleep disorders (insomnia, SDB risk, parasomnia, or nightmares) were associated with worse sleep quality and lower quality of life. Nineteen students met criteria for NTS. Compared to NTS−, NTS+ showed significantly lower quality of life (p < 0.003, g = 0.84). Regression analyses revealed higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms in NTS+ students. NTS was associated with reduced quality of life independent of anxiety symptoms.
Prevalence of presumptive sleep disorders was high with a tendency for clusters of sleep disorders in the same individual. Students with NTS+ showed worse outcomes and reduced quality of life, mediated partially by depression and anxiety. To examine relationships between sleep disorders and mental health in at-risk adolescents, research investigations must include both subjective and objective measurements of sleep.
Type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance presenting in infancy with renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Here, we present the case of a 6-week-old baby girl who presented with mild hyponatraemia and dehydration with a background of severe failure to thrive. At presentation, urinary sodium was not measurably increased, but plasma aldosterone and renin were increased, and continued to rise during the subsequent week. Despite high calorie feeds the infant weight gain and hyponatraemia did not improve until salt supplements were commenced. Subsequently, the karyotype was reported as 46,XX,inv (4)(q31.2q35). A search of the OMIM database for related genes at or near the inversion breakpoints, showed that the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C2) at 4q31.23 was a likely candidate. Further FISH analysis showed findings consistent with disruption of the NR3C2 gene by the proximal breakpoint (4q31.23) of the inversion. There was no evidence of deletion or duplication at or near the breakpoint. This is the first report of a structural chromosome disruption of the NR3C2 gene giving rise to the classical clinical manifestations of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 in an infant.