Antidumping policy was for many years an instrument employed almost exclusively by a small number of developed economies. Over the past 15 years, however, the use of this instrument of trade policy has spread to developing economies, and the overwhelming share of antidumping cases now involve developing countries either as petitioner or as target of these cases. This paper describes these trends in some detail and discusses some implications. A focus of the paper is the absence of discussion in the development economics literature on the topic despite the increasingly important role played by antidumping policy.
In recent years, the role of multimarket contact (MMC) among firms in influencing market performance has been studied for a relatively small group of industries – with banking and airlines most often examined, though the cement and telecommunications industries have been studied as well. This paper investigates this issue for the local movie theater industry in the U.S., one not previously studied in this regard. In small U.S. metropolitan areas, there is considerable variation in the nature of MMC among theater chains (large and small), which allows us to examine whether MMC among firms has an impact on movie pricing in these smaller markets. Data on movie pricing, market structure, and income and population characteristics are obtained for 118 multi-screen first-run movie theaters in 79 small metropolitan areas – those with under 250,000 people – which are not part of larger “consolidated” metropolitan areas. Analysis provides evidence supportive of MMC effects but suggestive of its limited applicability.
One peculiar source of nonlabor income that has not been extensively studied for its effect on labor supply is the Alaska Permanent Fund (APF) dividend. This is somewhat surprising given the recent policy focus on Guaranteed Basic Income programs. An annual lump-sum payment, the Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) is available to almost all Alaska residents, is clearly exogenous with respect to work effort, and – while relatively predictable – varies over time and across households (since it increases linearly with family size). This paper estimates the nonlabor income elasticity of labor supply using exogenous variation from the Alaskan PFD and data from the American Community Survey (ACS). The analysis finds that men have elasticities between −0.15 and −0.10, depending on the specification. Single women have elasticities between −0.14 and −0.09, while married women have somewhat larger elasticities between −0.18 and −0.11.
A long-held view in international trade policy analysis is that import protection flows downstream. The descriptive analysis of Feinberg and Kaplan 1993, looking at trends in upstream and downstream antidumping and countervailing-duty cases since the US Trade Agreements Act of 1979. It covers the period from 1980 to 2015 for the five leading users of temporary trade barriers (TTBs): Argentina, Brazil, the European Union, India, and the United States. We examine evidence for two broad sectors which have dominated the use of TTBs: metals and chemicals. Both via descriptive trend analysis and simple statistical estimation, we find suggestive evidence in support of cascading trade protection, though more so for the developing countries studied.
As multilateral negotiations focus more on reductions and removal of non-tariff barriers (NTBs), the importance of quantifying the impact of these barriers has increased. Recent studies have derived ad valorem equivalents for NTBs for a large number of countries and/or products, but the derivation has been indirect, due to either lack of price data or NTB incidence measures. This paper uses city level retail price data to directly estimate the average impact of core NTBs on prices of 47 consumer products, grouped into four separate sectors, for more than 60 countries in 2001. The analysis uses both government self-reported data and a new database of private sector complaint data to assess NTB incidence. A differentiated products model is used to capture imperfect substitutability between products. With city level price dataincluding both inter- and intra-country price differencesa more precise distinction can be made between the impact of NTBs and the impact of local distribution costs in raising price. The model is estimated using an instrumental variables approach to incorporate the endogeneity of NTBs. Results suggest that core NTBs are still highly restrictive in many countries and for many traded goods. While NTBs appear to be complements to tariffs, in some sectors the presence of a tariff reduces the price impact of the NTB. Results also suggest that in some sectors, the restrictiveness of NTBs is highly correlated with country income.