The metastable surface structure and dynamics of water molecules, cations, and anions at the interface between KBr(001) and water have been demonstrated from the images in situ observed in atomic resolution using atomic force microscopy. The vertical motion of potassium ions, which means their own transfer from the equilibrium sites to the upper height right on the underlying bromide ions, has been observed at the interface. They are used to be located in some steady state stabilized by their interaction with water molecules in the double atomic layer at the interface. The observed water molecules bridge two bromide ions by hydrogen bond; the water molecules are sandwiched by the potassium ions and vice versa.
Short-lived nuclides of iodine produced in the proton-, 12C- and 19F-induced fission of 235U, 237Np and 238U were separated with a rapid chemical separation system SISAK. Relative yields of the nuclides were determined by γ -ray spectrometry to obtain the isomeric yield ratios of 134mI/134gI and 136mI/136gI. Angular momenta of the fission fragments, 134I and 136I, were derived from the measured isomeric yield ratios by the spin-dependent statistical model. In the light- and heavy-ion fission, variation of the observed angular momenta can be explained by the excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei and the spherical shell structure with N = 82.
The transactinide nuclides 261Rf and 262Db have been successfully produced in the 248Cm(18O,5n) reaction at 99 MeV and in the 248Cm(19F,5n) reaction at 100, 103, and 106 MeV, respectively, at the JAERI tandem accelerator. The on-line ion exchange experiments with an automated fast and repetitive liquid chromatography separation system were performed in the HNO3/HF system using Rf homologues 89mZr and 167,165Hf produced in the 89Y(p,n) and 152Gd(18O,xn) reactions, respectively. The radiotracers 88Zr, 175Hf, and 234Th were also prepared and the distribution coefficients on ion exchange resins were measured systematically in 1-11 M HCl and 1-14 M HNO3 with the batch method. It was found that anion exchange experiments of Rf in 8 M HNO3 and 9 M HCl provided information useful to extract the ionic radius of Rf and to verify the influence of relativistic effects.