Against the background of the current discussion of statutory minimum wages in Germany, this paper analyzes the potential employment and fiscal effects of such a policy. Based on estimated labor demand elasticities obtained from a structural labor demand model, the empirical results imply that minimum wages in Germany will be associated with significant employment losses among marginal and low- and semi-skilled full-time workers. Even though minimum wages will lead to increased public revenues from income taxes and social security benefits, they will result in a significant fiscal burden, due to increased unemployment benefits and decreased revenues from corporate taxes.
Nanoparticles (NP) have specific catalytic properties, which are influenced by parameters like their size, shape, or composition. Bimetallic NPs, composed of two metal elements can show an improved catalytic activity compared to the monometallic NPs. We, herein, report on the selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalyzed by unsupported Pd/Au and Pd NPs at atmospheric pressure. NPs of varying compositions were synthesized and characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The NPs were tested in the model reaction regarding their catalytic activity, stability, and recyclability in batch and continuous procedure. Additionally, in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed in order to get insight in the process during NP catalysis.
Pediatric hypertension is a serious problem associated with target organ damage in children and an increased risk for adult hypertension. African-American and Latino children are disproportionately affected. Unfortunately, due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of blood pressure (BP) standards, pediatric hypertension is undiagnosed in the majority of cases. We sought to identify factors associated with correct diagnosis and to better understand diagnosis of hypertension by studying the diagnostic paths of a small number of children.
Data were extracted from electronic health records (EHRs) of children who met criteria for hypertension. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with correct diagnosis. Diagnostic paths for 20 diagnosed children were extracted through chart review and analyzed.
Among 1478 hypertensive children, only 85 were diagnosed (6.1%). Age ≥12 compared to age ≤6 was associated with correct diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) of 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.16, 3.32)]. Diagnostic paths revealed that primary care providers (PCPs) make the diagnosis based on multiple readings over time and order laboratory tests appropriately.
Hypertension is missed in a large proportion of all children. Effective, systematic approaches to diagnosis are necessary.
Background: In spring 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico. During the following weeks the virus spread worldwide, prompting the World Health Organization to declare the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Sustained human-to-human transmission and severe disease progression observed in some patients urged public health authorities to respond rapidly to the disease outbreak and vaccine manufacturers to develop pandemic influenza vaccines for mass distribution. With the onset of the pandemic we began to explore the potential of academic/industrial collaboration to accelerate the production of vaccines during an outbreak of an emerging virus by combining the use of an academic BSL-4 laboratory with the expertise of a commercial vaccine manufacturer.
Methods and results: To obtain virus seed stocks used for the production of a vaccine to combat the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus (H1N1pdm), we followed various strategies: (i) optimization of cell culture conditions for growth of wild-type H1N1pdm isolates; (ii) classical reassortment of H1N1pdm and standard influenza vaccine donor strain PR8; and (iii) generation of corresponding reassortant viruses using reverse genetics. To ensure a rapid transition to production, the entire potential seed stock development process was carried out in a certified canine kidney suspension cell line (MDCK 33016-PF) under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions.
Conclusions: The outcome of this study indicates that a combination of different experimental strategies is the best way to cope with the need to develop vaccines rapidly in the midst of an emerging pandemic.