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  • Author: Sasa Milenkovic x
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Different cytokines play important role in the processes that cause articular destruction and extra-articular manifestations in RA. The contribution of cytokines representing the Th1 (INF-γ), Th2 (IL-4) and IL-17A to the pathogenesis of early RA and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in still poorly understood. Serum samples of 38 early RA patients were evaluated for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and for the tested cytokines (IL-17A, IL-4 and INF-γ). BMD was evaluated by dualenergyX-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Disease activity score (DAS28) calculation was assessed for all patients. Control serum samples were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers. The levels of tested cytokines were significantly higher (IL-17A, p<0.001; INF-γ, P<0.001; IL-4, P<0.01) in patients with early RA, compared to the healthy controls. In early RA patients, strong correlation of serum IL-17A was found with DAS28, ESR and CRP. Also, a significant negative correlation was found between serum INF-γ levels and the DAS28 score. Significantly positive correlation of BMD values and CRP, DAS28 IL-17A were also demonstrated. DXA analysis revealed that the most common site for osteoporosis was the lumbar spine followed by the femoral neck. BMD values significantly correlated with CRP, DAS28 score and IL-17A serum levels. The mean serum IL-17A levels, in patients with early RA, corresponded with disease activity, severity and BMD loss, indicating the potential usefulness of serum IL-17A in defining the disease activity and bone remodeling.


By determining the prevalence of postural disorders among eighth grade school students it is possible to indicate the state of these disorders at the end of the elementary school level of education, and compare it to the results obtained by applying corrective treatments on high school students. Thus, the aim of the research was to determine the prevalence of postural disorders among eighth grade school children. The research was carried out on a sample of 101 eighth grade students of both genders, aged 14. The photometry method was used to determine the presence of any postural disorders. The research results indicated that a proportionally statistically significant large number of participants with postural disorders were identified. Of the total number of participants, 60.4% had postural disorders, the most prevalent of which was flat back (22.8%), kypho-lordosis, (20.8%), lordosis (9.9%) and kyphosis (6.9%). Analyzed in terms of gender, the percentage of the girls with postural disorders is statistically significantly greater than that of the boys. Due to the large number of children with postural disorders, the recommendation is that the evaluation of the postural status of students should take place not only at the elementary school age, but also at the high school age. In addition, evaluation alone is insufficient, and exercise programs to correct postural disorders are required as well.


Early diagnosis of osteoporosis and estimation of subjects that are at high risk for fracture, is neccesary for osteoporosis treatment. Dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) is a modern method for bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation. However, along BMD, clinical risk factors may significantly influence fracture development. Therefore, FRAX algorithm was designed for the assessment of a ten-year risk for serious osteoporotic fractures (SOF), as well as hip fractures. In the current study, we tried to evaluate the possible lumbal spine and hip BMD influence on ten year risk for SOF and hip fractures and potential role of FRAX in predicting the therapy in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. We performed the study on 385 postmenopausal women. According to the DXA measurements, at the lumbal (L) spine (L1–L4) and hip (femor neck), patients were then classified as normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic. BMD evaluation included the L spine and the hip (subgroup 1), and only on the L spine (subgroup 2). By filling up the FRAX questionnaire, a ten-year risk for SOF fracture and hip fracture was calculated. BMD evaluation, in complete patient’s group and in subgroup 1, resulted in the highest number of osteoporosis (61.04%, 48.08%, retrospectively), while ospeopenia was a main finding in subgroup 2. In the subgroup 1, a high risk for SOF and hip fracture was detected in 16.45% and with high risk for hip fracture in 11.38% subjects. In subgroup 2, only high risk for hip fracture was observed in 3.16% subjects, indicating the active medicament treatment. Simultaneously, correlation of BMD results with FRAX values for SOF and hip fracture, showed significant negative correlation (p<0.001). Obtained results showed significant role of femur neck BMD evaluation in predicting the future factors, which may, together with FRAX analysis, improve the therapy approach in postmenopausal women with ospeopenia.


The aim of the paper was to examine the relation between bone density and certain parameters of lipid status in postmenopausal women. The research involved 300 women referred to densitometric examination as they belonged to the risk group of postmenopausal women. All the examinees had the following biochemical parameters determined: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glycemia, serum Ca and P. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that each year of age, menopause duration, AH are significantly connected to risk increase for the appearance of osteopenia or osteoporosis. Increase in values of SBP, DBP, cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride are connected with significant risk increase for the appearance of osteopenia or osteoporosis. Patients with AH are connected to 11 times elevated risk for the appearance of osteopenia or osteoporosis, cigarette smoking increased the risk by seven times, physical inactivity even by 52 times, CVD in the family anamnesis by eight times, and osteoporosis in the family anamnesis is connected to the risk by four times. In our research, atherogenic lipoproteins negatively correlate with lumbar bone density. Disturbed lipide status is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but also a risk factor for the appearance of osteoporosis.