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  • Author: Serdar Deger x
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Introduction: Echinococcus granulosus is a zoonotic helminth of the Taeniidae family living in the small intestines of dogs. The hydatid cyst, which is the larval form of this parasite, is observed in sheep, goat, cattle, and many other organisms including humans. It causes a disease called cystic echinococcosis. Identification of strains of E. granulosus in dogs is critical in parasite control and eradication where possible. This study aims to determine the genotype of E. granulosus eggs and prevalence of this parasite in the faeces of dogs in the Van Province using the copro-PCR method.

Material and Methods: This study was conducted between 2015 and 2016 on the faeces obtained from 100 stray dogs from different parts of the Van Province. The coprological examination was conducted using the formalin-ether concentration method.

Results: Taeniidae eggs were found in 10 (10%) out of 100 faecal samples. E. granulosus was detected in 4 out of 10 of these (40%) infected samples. Sequence analysis of positive amplicons obtained from PCR showed that there were sheep strains (G1).

Conclusion: Dogs in Van area are primarily infected with the livestock genotype of E. granulosus, which is thought to be a potential zoonotic threat to humans.



Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are roundworms of dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the infection caused by these ascarids in cats and dogs, using microscopic and molecular analysis methods.

Material and Methods

Adult ascarids were gathered from the faeces of dogs and cats in Van province, in 2015–2016. Existing keys and PCR sequencing of the ITS-2 fragment were used to identify the morphological features of the parasite species.


It was observed that out of 20 adult ascarids, 17 and 3 were found to be Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. The ITS-2 gene region was amplified by PCR to perform molecular analysis. Genotyping indicated that the dogs and cats were infected with T. canis and T. cati, respectively, and none had Toxascaris leonina.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characteristics of adult ascaridoid nematodes from cats and dogs in Turkey. The molecular approaches established in this study enable molecular identification and genetic structure studies of the ascaridoids.


Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay-dependent variations could result in misinterpretation of individual PSA values. Therefore, the situation for clinical interpretation of PSA or percent free PSA (%fPSA) results is complicated. This review summarizes the differences in various total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) assays, and results obtained using the new World Health Organization (WHO) calibrated Access assays from various studies. Method comparisons between the traditionally calibrated Hybritech PSA and fPSA assays and the new “standardized” WHO calibrated assays yield results that are ∼25% lower for PSA and fPSA. A PSA cut-off of 3 or 3.1 μg/L should be considered for WHO calibrated assays in order to achieve the same sensitivity/specificity profile as with a cut-off of 4 μg/L in traditionally calibrated assays. The %fPSA cut-offs could be retained.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2009;47:1325–31.


Background: The metrological traceability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay calibration to WHO standards is desirable to potentially improve the comparability between PSA assays. A method comparison was performed between the traditionally standardized Beckman Coulter Hybritech Access PSA and free PSA (fPSA) assays and a new alternate calibration of assays aligned to the WHO standards 96/670 and 96/668, respectively.

Methods: Sera from 641 men with and without prostate cancer, various control materials and mixtures of different proportions of the WHO standards were measured with both assay calibrations.

Results: Excellent comparability between the corresponding assay calibrations was observed, with correlation coefficients of at least 0.996. The Passing-Bablok slopes were 0.747 for total PSA (tPSA), 0.776 for fPSA and 1.02 for the percentage ratio of fPSA to tPSA (%fPSA), while the corresponding percentages of the new WHO-aligned assay results related to the traditional assays were 76.2%, 77% and 102.2%. Receiver operating characteristics revealed no differences between the two PSA assay calibrations.

Conclusions: The WHO calibration yields results approximately 25% lower for tPSA and fPSA values when compared with the conventional Hybritech calibration. Using the WHO-aligned PSA assay, a tPSA cut-off of 3 μg/L should be considered in clinical practice, while %fPSA cut-offs could be retained.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46:623–9.


Background: A nationwide multicenter study was organized to establish reference intervals (RIs) in the Turkish population for 25 commonly tested biochemical analytes and to explore sources of variation in reference values, including regionality.

Methods: Blood samples were collected nationwide in 28 laboratories from the seven regions (≥400 samples/region, 3066 in all). The sera were collectively analyzed in Uludag University in Bursa using Abbott reagents and analyzer. Reference materials were used for standardization of test results. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, RIs were derived by a parametric method employing the modified Box-Cox formula and compared with the RIs by the non-parametric method. Three-level nested ANOVA was used to evaluate variations among sexes, ages and regions. Associations between test results and age, body mass index (BMI) and region were determined by multiple regression analysis (MRA).

Results: By ANOVA, differences of reference values among seven regions were significant in none of the 25 analytes. Significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed for 10 and seven analytes, respectively. MRA revealed BMI-related changes in results for uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Their RIs were thus derived by applying stricter criteria excluding individuals with BMI >28 kg/m2. Ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than those by parametric method especially for those analytes affected by BMI.

Conclusions: With the lack of regional differences and the well-standardized status of test results, the RIs derived from this nationwide study can be used for the entire Turkish population.