The study evaluated some agro-morphological (fruit weight, fruit flesh ratio, fruit skin colour, number of fruits per raceme, number of racemes per bush), biochemical (vitamin C, soluble solids content, organic acids), and bioactive (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity) characteristics of the fruit of a number of selected European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L.) genotypes grown in the Sivas province of Turkey. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were performed. The results showed genotype-specific differences in most of the agro-morphological, biochemical and bioactive characteristics. The range of fruit weight, number of fruits per raceme, and number of racemes per bush was between 0.67 and 0.82 g, 40.7 and 57.1, and 470 and 581, respectively. The highest vitamin C and soluble solids contents were found in the fruits of genotypes SIV-9 and SIV-6 as 39 mg per 100 g and 12.6%, respectively. Tartaric acid was the main organic acid in all the genotypes; it ranged from 120 to 144 mg per 100 g of fruit FW. Total phenolic, total anthocyanin and total flavonoid contents ranged from 621 to 987 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g, 15 to 51 mg cyanidin-3-rutinoside equivalents per 100 g, and 202 to 318 mg rutin equivalents per 100 g, respectively. Genotype SIV-10 had the highest antioxidant capacity (34.90 μmol Trolox per g, based on FRAP assays). The present study shows the potential of the evaluated European Cranberrybush genotypes for improving the nutritional value through germplasm enhancement programmes.
The beneficial effects of walnuts and walnut products on human health, due primarily to their rich polyphenolic content, have been appreciated as an empirical fact for centuries. The purpose of this study is to determine the polyphenolic contents of liqueurs made from the walnut selections ‘Rasna’ and ‘Sava’ and the walnut cultivar ‘Šampion’ (all harvested at three different times), as well as the polyphenolic contents of their green husks. The walnut liqueurs were prepared according to two traditional recipes using young walnut fruits. The highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the liqueur made from the ‘Rasna’ walnut selection (89.94%), whereas the highest contents of phenols (83.28 mg GAE/g FW), flavonoids (0.83 mg QE/g FW) and proanthocyanidins were found in the liqueur made from the ‘Šampion’ cultivar (14.75 mg CE/g FW). The youngest ‘Rasna’ walnuts, harvested at the first experimental time point, exhibited the highest phenolic and tannin contents, whereas the highest flavonoid content was observed in the ‘Šampion’ cultivar. The biochemical results obtained indicate a decrease in the polyphenolic content of walnut fruits with their growth and development. Moreover, the polyphenolic profiles of the walnut liqueurs considered were found to be greatly affected by the method of preparation and the cultivar/selection of walnuts.
The study was carried out in 2014 and 2015, and aimed to determine some important biochemical and antioxidant characteristics of the fruits of mulberry (Morus spp.) cultivars and genotypes found in Malatya (Turkey). Phenolic compounds (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, phloridzin and ferulic acid), organic acids, sugars, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in sampled fruits. The results showed that most of the biochemical content and antioxidant capacities of the cultivars and genotypes were significantly different from one another (p < 0.05). Among the phenolic compounds, rutin (118.23 mg 100 g-1), gallic acid (36.85 mg 100 g-1), and chlorogenic acid (92.07 mg 100 g-1) were determined to have the highest values for most of the fruit samples. Malic acid and citric acid were dominant among the organic acids for all the cultivars and genotypes except 44-Nrk-05. Glucose was measured as a more abundant sugar than fructose and sucrose in all samples. Antioxidant capacity, on the other hand, varied between 6.17 and 21.13 μmol TE g-1 among the cultivars and genotypes analyzed.
Some important physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of raw and processed olives (processed by the same scratched table olive process) were investigated. In the study, six candidate cultivars obtained by cross-breeding and one standard cultivar (‘Domat’) grown together in an olive breeding and observation plot in the Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Turkey were investigated. Fruit weight and flesh-to-seed ratio of fresh raw olives ranged from 5.18 to 7.65 g and 4.8 to 6.3, respectively. LT011 had the highest fruit weight, whereas LT001 and LE001 had the highest flesh-to-seed ratio. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the produced table olives were estimated between 102 and 141 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g−1fresh weight, and 13.4 and 14.9 µmol Trolox 100 g−1, respectively. Fruits of LT001 had higher appearance, taste, bitterness and general appreciation scores than the others. LT001 showed a lesser loss of oleuropein absorbance and antioxidant activity than the others during processing. The results of this study revealed that LE001, LT001 and LT011 had superior characteristics for the production of scratched green table olives.
This study presents an efficient improvement in the in vitro propagation protocol for one cloned genotype of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus L.) by assessing the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations, different cytokinins and amino acids and their concentrations on shoot proliferation, the effects of shoot length on rooting and the effects of compost type (sterile and non-sterile) on acclimatization. The best growth medium for multiple shoot induction was the MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1 mg l−1 BA, 100 mg l−1 tryptophan and 0.5 mg l-1 GA3, which gave a mean shoot length of 1.64 ± 0.07 cm and a mean bud number of 5.46 ± 0.16. The best results in terms of root length, rooting rate and the number of roots per shoot were obtained with 2 cm long shoots. The rooted plantlets were readily acclimatized in the sterile compost. In conclusion, the micropropagation protocol developed in this study can be used for large-scale propagation of P. lentiscus L. in reforestation programmes.
Continuous seed propagation in Turkey has given rise to a great number of seedling walnut trees which represents valuable walnut genetic resources. The number of native walnut trees is estimated to be over 5 million in Turkey and they possess large phenotypic variability in yield, nut and kernel characteristics, late bud breaking, late flowering, winter hardiness and tolerance to diseases. Progress in walnut breeding requires the exploitation of genetic variation among cultivars and landraces. In this study, we used 32 local diverse walnut genotypes obtained from seeds and 2 standard cultivars (‘Sebin’ and ‘Bilecik’). This study implemented 21 previously used simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers to determine genetic diversity. The analysis revealed 135 alleles with an average of 6.43 alleles per locus. Genetic similarity ranged from 0.23 (for samples KW22 and KW29) to 0.87 (for samples KW27 and KW28). The highest number of alleles per locus was obtained from WGA276 locus (11 alleles), followed by WGA054 (9 alleles), WGA202 and WGA321 (8 alleles) while the lowest number was detected in WGA027. According to the morphological and molecular data, the genotypes differed from each other and the cvs. Sebin and Bilecik. The majority of the genotypes had higher fruit weight and some of the genotypes had higher kernel ratio than cvs. Sebin and Bilecik implying the importance of registering genotypes as cultivars. This research provides information on the genetic relationship of walnut genotypes and cultivars and emphasises the importance of protection and utilisation of seed-propagated walnut genetic resources.
Strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo L.) are naturally grown in particular Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey with great diversity due to continuous seed propagation for centuries. The trees differ in terms of most of the horticultural characteristics. We investigated the phenolic compounds and the biochemical and pomological characteristics of the fruits of eight strawberry tree selections naturally grown in the western part of Turkey. Significant differences were found among the genotypes in terms of their phenolic compounds and their biochemical and pomological characteristics. Among soluble sugars, fructose (11.63 g 100 g−1) was the dominant sugar, followed by glucose (6.10 g 100 g−1) and sucrose (1.44 g 100 g−1) for all the genotypes. Positive correlation was found between fruit weight and soluble sugar content. Malic acid was the major organic acid (0.67-2.33 g 100 g−1), and the second major organic acid in strawberry tree fruits was citric acid (0.25-0.87 g 100 g−1). Vitamin C content was an average of 56.22 g 100 g−1 for the eight genotypes. Among phenolic compounds, gallic acid was dominant (1.62-7.29 mg 100 g−1), followed by chlorogenic acid (1.23-3.14 mg 100 g−1), on an average basis.
Tree, leaf, pod and seed morphology, as well as pod biochemistry of 36 wild-grown carob genotypes sampled from rural areas in Marmaris district located at western Turkey, were investigated. Leaf and pod dimensions, pod and seed weight, seed ratio, pod and seed colour and shape and surface traits were investigated. Soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity, vitamin C and protein and dietary fibre contents were also detected. Results showed significant differences for all quantitative traits, although differences are more pronounced for some pod (weight, width, length and thickness) and seed characteristics (weight, dimensions and ratio). Pod and seed colour, shape and surface qualitative threats were found to be quite variable among genotypes. The majority of genotypes had an open tree growth habit. Leaf length and width were found to be between 8.04 cm (M19) and 11.60 cm (M12) and 8.40 cm (M2) and 12.04 cm (M12) among genotypes. Pod weight ranged from 8.3 g (M35) to 29.5 g (M3) in the wild genotypes. The average pod dimensions (width, length and thickness) were between 14.27 and 23.38 mm, 12.54 and 21.67 cm and 4.80 and 8.37 mm, respectively. The SSC ranged from 49.36 to 69.36% in the pods of wild carob genotypes. The results of this study indicate a good genetic resource potential of Turkish wild carob populations for future breeding programmes.