A new taxoid metabolite with an unusual double bond between C-13 and C-14 was isolated from the methanol extract of the hard wood of Taxus cuspidata. The structure was established as 2α,5α,7β ,9α,10β ,13β -hexaacetoxy-11β -hydroxyl-19β -benzoxytaxa-4(20),13-dien- 12,16-epoxide (1), named 5,13-diacetyltaxinine M-13-enol, on the basis of spectral analysis including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY and confirmed by HR-FAB-MS.
Cavitation causes serious damages to Francis turbine, e.g., noise and vibration. Its mechanism is complex and may be affected by many factors. The present paper compares cavitation behavior of flow in a Francis turbine with different content of non-condensable gas (NCG) concluded from experiment and numerical simulations. The experimental results show small difference in characteristics of cavitation with different content of non-condensable gas, while numerical simulation shows larger difference. It thus can be concluded that present simulation over-predict this difference.
To provide a reference for the design and operation of municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) in industrial areas, this paper analyzed the data variation and full-flow balance of Cu2+ during the operation of MWTP from 2010 to 2015 of a hardware electron-mechanical industrial area in the South, taking on the heavy metal pollutant copper in the influent, effluent and sludge as evaluation objectives, combined with the major industry and treatment process of the MWTP. Results showed an overall high concentration of Cu2+ in the wastewater of that area, especially during the construction stage of the industrial area, the concentration of Cu2+ is 1.97 times higher than during the maturity stage. The removal rate of Cu2+ in normal wastewater treatment process can reach over 90%. The concentration of Cu2+ in sludge is generally high; the treatment and disposal method should be noticed to prevent second contamination of heavy metal.
Background: Neuropsychiatric deficits can induce marked disability in patients with dementia and increase
caregiver distress. Several studies have found that neuropsychiatric symptoms are common both in patients
with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and patients with vascular dementia (VaD). However, there are few studies of the
neuropsychiatric disturbances in large clinical samples of patients with mixed (cortical - subcortical) VaD from
mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the neuropsychiatric symptoms in VaD patients in mainland
China. Methods: Eighty patients with mixed VaD for over 6 months duration, and their caregivers (VaD group),
were recruited for interview in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, from June 2010 to June 2012. Eighty
age- and sex-matched normal volunteers (control group) were interviewed at the same time. The Mini Mental
State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to the VaD patients, their
caregivers, and normal volunteers. Group differences were analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: The total
mean scores of the NPI in the VaD group were higher than in the control group (P < 0.01). The subscale scores of
NPI, including delusions, hallucinations, depression, apathy, irritability, agitation, aberrant motor behavior, and
change in appetite were significantly higher in the VaD group than in the control group (P < 0.05-0.01). Compared
with the mild VaD subgroup, the NPI subscale scores of apathy, irritability and total scores were significantly
higher in the moderate VaD subgroup (P < 0.05-0.01); the NPI subscale scores of anxiety, apathy, irritability, and
total scores were significantly higher in the severe VaD subgroup (P < 0.01). Compared with the moderate VaD
subgroup, the NPI subscale scores of anxiety and apathy were significantly higher in the severe VaD subgroup
(P < 0.05-0.01). Conclusions: Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as hallucination, anxiety, apathy, irritability and
aberrant action behavior, are common in patients with mixed VaD from mainland China; anxiety and apathy were
more pronounced in the subgroup of severe VaD patients.
Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) coupled with a chemometric method is proposed in this study to profile and distinguish between rhizomes of Smilax glabra (S. glabra) and Smilax china (S. china). The proposed method employed an electrospray-time-of-flight MS. The MS fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with the aid of SIMCA software. Findings showed that the two kinds of samples perfectly fell into their own classes. Further predictive study showed desirable predictability and the tested samples were successfully and reliably identified. The study demonstrated that the proposed method could serve as a powerful tool for distinguishing between S. glabra and S. china.