Ultramarathon races are rapidly gaining popularity in several countries, raising interest for the improvement of training programs. The aim of this study was to use a triaxial accelerometer to compare the three-dimensional centerof- mass accelerations of two groups of ultramarathon runners with distinct performances during different running speeds and distances. Ten runners who participated in the 12-h Taipei International Ultramarathon Race underwent laboratory treadmill testing one month later. They were divided into an elite group (EG; n = 5) and a sub-elite group (SG; n = 5). The triaxial center-of-mass acceleration recorded during a level-surface progressive intensity running protocol (3, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 km/h; 5 min each) was used for correlation analyses with running distance during the ultramarathon. The EG showed negative correlations between mediolateral (ML) acceleration (r = −0.83 to −0.93, p < 0.05), and between anterior-posterior (AP) acceleration and running distance (r = −0.8953 to −0.9653, p < 0.05), but not for vertical control of the center of mass. This study suggests that runners reduce stride length to minimize mediolateral sway and the effects of braking on the trunk; moreover, cadence must be increased to reduce braking effects and enhance impetus. Consequently, the competition level of ultramarathons can be elevated.
Background: The role of proinflammatory cytokines in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is unclear. We therefore determined whether plasma proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were useful plasma markers in PID patients.
Methods: Multiplex bead array analysis was used to measure the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in 50 healthy controls as well as in 41 PID patients before and after routine protocol treatments.
Results: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly elevated in PID patients before antibiotic treatment than after treatment. However, IL-8 was not significantly different between healthy controls and PID patients. The relative increase in ratio of IL-6 was significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r=0.448, p=0.003), neutrophil count (r=0.472, p=0.002) and C-reactive protein level (r=0.412, p=0.008).
Conclusions: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PID. These biomarkers, particularly IL-6, could be useful adjuncts for the clinical diagnosis of PID.
Background: The goal of our study was to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-3 and MMP-7 on susceptibility to endometrial cancer.
Methods: In the present study, we enrolled a total of 118 patients with endometrial cancer confirmed by histopathology, and 229 unrelated healthy individuals. Polymorphism for the MMP-2 (rs2285053), MMP-3 (rs3025058) and MMP-7 (rs11568818) genes was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme length polymorphism.
Results: The frequencies of MMP-7 −181 G/G and A/G genotypes were found to be significantly higher in cancer patients compared with healthy controls (p=0.017). Stratification showed that individuals with MMP-7 −181 G allele were at increased risk for endometrial cancer when >50 years of age [odds ratios (OR)=2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–3.39], endometrioid (OR=1.80; 95% CI 1.11–2.92), low (stage I–II) (OR=1.73; 95% CI 1.05–2.83) or high stage (stage III–IV) (OR=2.69; 95% CI 1.16–6.24). Compared with the A/A genotype, the A/G+G/G genotype modified the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma and significance was detected in patients over 50 years old, and those with endometrioid type and high stage endometrial cancer. However, no significant difference in MMP-2 (-735 C/T) and MMP-3 (6A/5A) genotypes was observed between endometrial carcinoma cases and controls.
Conclusions: This is the first report on the association of MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-7 gene polymorphisms in endometrial cancer. Our results suggest that individuals with the MMP-7 −181 G/G and A/G genotype may have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer.
There are several benefits of using the supercritical fluid microcellular injection moulding process. The part weight, melt temperature, viscosity, moulding pressure, shrink/warpage, and cooling/cycle time are all significantly reduced. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rheological behaviour of PS melt dissolved SCF of nitrogen during Microcellular Injection Moulding process applied with Gas Counter Pressure (GCP) technology. The application of gas into the mould cavity prior to the melt filling provides a counter force against the melt front advancement, restricting the foaming process during the melt filling stage. A slit cavity is designed to measure the pressure drop of polystyrene mixed with 0.4wt% supercritical nitrogen fluid under different mould temperatures (185°C, 195°C, and 205°C), injection speeds (5, 10, and 15 mm/s) as well as counter pressures (0, 150, 300 bars). It was found that melt viscosity is reduced by up to 30% when GCP is increased from 50 to 150 bar as compared to conventional injection moulding. The non-nucleation mixture melt obtained by using a GCP of 300 bar has 32~49% lower viscosity. In addition, the glass transition temperature, Tg, was found to be reduced from 96 °C to 50 °C when the applied GCP is 300 bar.