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  • Author: THOMAS J. KRAUS x
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Although I have repeatedly published about the so-called Fayum Fragment (P.Vindob.G) 2325 - a fragment of a potential, non-canonical gospel, I have previously only briefly touched on the two lexemes ἀ λεκτρυών and κοκκύζω used for the cock’s crow. In the present study, I will offer a more detailed presentation of their usage and provide a more thorough analysis of the question, which expressions for the cock and its crow were common in Greek in various areas and situations. The result comes as a surprise: it is not the usage in the text of the Fayum Fragment that is striking and peculiar in comparison with the rest of Greek literature, but rather the fact that the canonical gospels consistently use ἀ λέκτωρ with φωνέω. Furthermore, the term hapax legomenon for ἀ λεκτρυών and κοκκύζω is a dubious and problematic attribute because it suggests a certain particularity, which, if at all valid, is limited at best.


The recent publication of a wood tablet with the words Bους and Bαινχωωχ on it prompted me to reconsider other similar tablets (also some with the very first words of Septuagint-Psalm 90), to categorize them, and to reflect upon the background of their textual and iconographic elements. Moreover, in addition to a sound systematization of the twelve known ‘Bous’ amulets I attempt to utilize the results of my own preoccupation with diverse objects with Septuagint-Psalm 90 in apotropaic use in order to shed light on both the tablets themselves and the people and their ideas behind them.


The article offers a couple of minor, but nevertheless important new readings of the Fayûm-Gospel.