The purpose of this paper is to understand the behaviour of the capital share and the unemployment rate in Europe over the past quarter of a century. We consider a model with monopolistic competition, increasing returns and an imperfect labour market, assuming that the elasticity between capital and labour is less than unity. Previous works have generally assumed constant returns to scale. Our results offer an important conclusion, namely that increased wage pressure will increase the unemployment rate and the capital share even though the latter initially decreases, which fits the stylized facts about the studied economies.
We analyzed the K-x plot in order to investigate the change in the electronic state in the C15 Laves phase compound HfV2 at the lattice transformation temperature TL (~120 K). We could obtain K3d orb X3d orb, and X5d orb + (2/3) XPauli + Xdia, which are consistent with those reported in our previous paper, and discussed the changes in density of states of the V3d and 4s electrons at TL.
For the superconducting state we discussed the d wave Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) type energy gap in which the gap is anisotropic and vanishes at points on the Fermi surface
Cu(1) NQR spectra of the CuO chain site in Y1 _ xPrxBa2Cu3O7 (x = 0.1 and 0.2), and the 63Cu(1) NQR spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T1 in Y0.9Pr0.1Ba2Cu3O7 have been measured. The half widths are about three times wider than those of the pure YBa2Cu3O7 . The peak frequencies are lowered by the Pr doping. This seems to indicate a decrease of on-site holes at the Cu(1) site. The relaxation rate 1/T1 is found to obey the same temperature dependence, 1/T1 = aT + bT3 as reported for pure YBa2Cu3O7.
The temperature variations of the 63Cu, 65Cu and 51V NMR spectra and 51V spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 have been measured in a thiospinel CuV2S4 . Drastic changes in the spectra and relaxation rates were observed at the charge density wave (CDW) transition temperature. With decreasing temperature T, 1/T1 decreases exponentially due to the CDW transition (75 K < T< 90 K). The energy gap made by the CDW formation at 90 K is estimated to be 0.052 eV from an Arrhenius plot of 1/T1.
We study the QCD phase structure at high temperature and density adopting a histogram method. Because the quark determinant is complex at finite density, the Monte-Carlo method cannot be applied directly. We use a reweighting method and try to solve the problems which arise in the reweighting method, i.e. the sign problem and the overlap problem. We discuss the chemical potential dependence of the probability distribution function in the heavy quark mass region and examine the applicability of the approach in the light quark region.
The order parameter and the conformations of the lipophilic chains in the C12E3 / decane / water ternary system have been studied by deuterium NMR and C-D stretching Raman spectroscopy. The order parameter and the trans fraction of the C-C bond of decane molecules decrease steadily or remain nearly constant with increasing decane concentration without noticeable changes at the phase transitions. On addition of decanemolecules to the C12E3 /water system, the effective volume of the lipophilic part of a single surfactant molecule increases as a result of the penetration of the added decane molecules into the lipophilic layer, leading to a high mobility of the alkyl chain. To minimize the resulting increase in the effective cross-sectional area of a surfactant molecule, the molecular chains of the surfactant reorient remarkably in the concentration region near the phase transitions, and the shape of the self-organizing structure changes to the one with a larger packing parameter.