The present study investigated the phytochemicals and antidiabetic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruit of Punica granatum Linn. in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The fruit of P. granatum was extracted with water. The phytochemicals of the water extract were investigated by the liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The water extract of P. granatum at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) was administered to mice for 21 days, and blood glucose level, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme were estimated. Analyzed phytochemicals showed the fruit of P. granatum Linn has a high amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, which provide beneficial effect for this plant. The oral administration of the fruit extract of P. granatum at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg bw for 21 days significantly reduced blood glucose level, triglycerides, serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, AST and ALT enzyme. Our results suggested that the fruit extract of P. granatum has strong antidiabetic effect in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The fruit of this plant might be a potential source of drug for treatment of diabetes.
African swine fever (ASF) was officially reported in Vietnam in February 2019 and spread across the whole country, affecting all 63 provinces and cities.
Material and Methods
In this study, ASF virus (ASFV) VN/Pig/HaNam/2019 (VN/Pig/HN/19) strain was isolated in primary porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells from a sample originating from an outbreak farm in Vietnam’s Red River Delta region. The isolate was characterised using the haemadsorption (HAD) test, real-time PCR, and sequencing. The activity of antimicrobial feed products was evaluated via a contaminated ASFV feed assay.
Phylogenetic analysis of the viral p72 and EP402R genes placed VN/Pig/HN/19 in genotype II and serogroup 8 and related it closely to Eastern European and Chinese strains. Infectious titres of the virus propagated in primary PAMs were 106 HAD50/ml. Our study reports the activity against ASFV VN/Pig/HN/19 strain of antimicrobial Sal CURB RM E Liquid, F2 Dry and K2 Liquid. Our feed assay findings suggest that the antimicrobial RM E Liquid has a strong effect against ASFV replication. These results suggest that among the Sal CURB products, the antimicrobial RM E Liquid may have the most potential as a mitigant feed additive for ASFV infection. Therefore, further studies on the use of antimicrobial Sal CURB RM E Liquid in vivo are required.
Our study demonstrates the threat of ASFV and emphasises the need to control and eradicate it in Vietnam by multiple measures.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which relates to nervous degeneration, is the most popular form of memory loss. The pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood, and there are no therapies for this disorder. Some drugs have been used in clinical applications for preventing and treating AD, but they have significant adverse reactions. Therefore, there is a need to develop treatment for AD. Traditional medicine has used many medicinal plants to alleviate the symptoms of AD. Medicinal plants may reduce neurodegenerative disorders with fewer side effects than chemical drugs, and they are promising drug candidates for AD therapy. This review is the summary of the pathogenesis and treatments of AD and includes information about the chemistry and bioactivities of some medicinal plants from the Huperzia species, such as Huperzia saururus, Huperzia selago, Huperzia phlegmaria, Huperzia fargesii, Huperzia serrata, Huperzia reflexa and Huperzia quadrifariata, that are used for the treatment of AD. We searched literature, including Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and PubMed database, and did a bibliographic review of relevant articles. Key words included Huperzia species, huperzine, huperin, Huperzia and Alzheimer’s disease. We found that the main bioactive compounds of the Huperzia species are alkaloids, which have shown significant effects on preventing the development of AD. They are new promising compounds against AD due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities in the neural system. Our conclusion from this review is that the Huperzia species are potential source containing various pharmaceutical compounds for the treatment of AD.
Background We evaluated the satisfaction and improvement in learning outcomes of students taking a distance course in Public Health facilitated by the Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health at the Hanoi Medical University and the State University of New York at Albany.
Methods A total of 36 students participated in pre- and post- course surveys online. We developed the Vietnamese E-Learning Student Outcomes Profile (VESOP) to evaluate the impact of distance learning methods on students’ learning outcomes. Factor analysis was applied to construct the measure items into five domains: Academic Skills, Intellectual Abilities, Interactions, Responsibility and Educational Engagement. Multivariate regression models, selected using stepwise approach, determined factors associated with changes in students’ learning outcomes. Student satisfaction with the course was assessed by determining their willingness to participate in and pay for future distance learning courses.
Results The students showed moderate improvement in “Interactions” and large improvements in the other four domains. Factors associated with improvements included previous academic performance, English proficiency, ease of access to the internet and computers, and time spent studying. All students passed the course, all would be willing to take another distance learning course, and 26 students would be willing to pay for such as course with certification.
Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the potential of distance learning as a complementary educational method that could greatly benefit Public Health students. It encourages and supports the development of such training programs for Public Health students in Vietnam.